Abteilung Neuroonkologie, Nationales Zentrum für Tumorerkrankungen (NCT), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, sowie KKE Neuroimmunologie und Hirntumorimmunologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and produces a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor-cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system contributes substantially to the antitumor effects of imatinib. Imatinib therapy activated CD8(+) T cells and induced regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) apoptosis within the tumor by reducing tumor-cell expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido). Concurrent immunotherapy augmented the efficacy of imatinib in mouse GIST. In freshly obtained human GIST specimens, the T cell profile correlated with imatinib sensitivity and IDO expression. Thus, T cells are crucial to the antitumor effects of imatinib in GIST, and concomitant immunotherapy may further improve outcomes in human cancers treated with targeted agents.
Nature medicine 08/2011; 17(9):1094-100. DOI:10.1038/nm.2438 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-molecular-weight chemicals or xenobiotics might contribute to the increasing prevalence of allergies and autoimmunity. Certain chemicals can alter immune responses via their action on the cytosolic transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR recognizes numerous small xenobiotic and natural molecules, such as dioxin and the tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole. Although AhR is best known for mediating dioxin toxicity, knockout studies have indicated that AhR also plays a role in normal physiology, including certain immune responses. In particular, Th17 cells and dendritic cells express high levels of AhR. We review here current evidence for the physiological role of AhR in the immune system, focussing in particular on T-cell biology.
Trends in Immunology 10/2009; 30(9):447-54. DOI:10.1016/j.it.2009.06.005 · 10.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of tryptophan metabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in dendritic cells (DCs) is a highly versatile regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. In acute reactions, the otherwise inflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFN-γ) acts in a feedback fashion to induce IDO's enzymatic function--and thus prevent potentially harmful, exaggerated responses--through the combined effects of tryptophan starvation and tryptophan catabolites acting via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor of T cells. IDO, however, is also involved in the maintenance of stable tolerance to self in noninflammatory contexts, thus restraining autoimmunity. Exposure, indeed, of mouse plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) provides IDO with regulatory effects that are distinct, in nature, from its enzymic activity. Once phosphorylated, IDO mediates signaling events culminating in self-amplification and maintenance of a stably regulatory condition in pDCs. Therefore, IDO has dual immunoregulatory functions driven by distinct cytokines. Firstly, the IFN-γ-IDO axis is crucial in generating and sustaining the function of regulatory T cells. Secondly, a nonenzymic function of IDO--as a signaling molecule--contributes to TGF-β-driven tolerance. The latter function is part of a regulatory circuit in pDCs whereby--in response to TGF-β--the kinase Fyn mediates tyrosine phosphorylation of IDO-associated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, resulting in downstream effects that regulate gene expression and preside over a proper, homeostatic balance between immunity and tolerance. All these aspects are covered in this review.
European Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 42(8):1932-7. DOI:10.1002/eji.201242572 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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