Cycling probe technology to quantify and discriminate between wild-type varicella-zoster virus and Oka vaccine strains
ABSTRACT Rapid differentiation between wild-type varicella zoster virus (VZV) and Oka-vaccine (vOka) strains is important for monitoring side reactions of varicella vaccination. To develop a high-throughput molecular diagnostic method for the differentiation of wild-type VZV and vOka strains based on cycling probe technology. The primers were designed to amplify common sequences spanning a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in gene 62 of VZV. DNA-RNA chimeric probes (cycling probes) were designed to detect the SNP at nucleotide 105705. The cycling probe real-time PCR assays for VZV wild-type and vOka strains specifically amplified plasmids containing target sequences that ranged between 10 and 1×10(6) copies per reaction. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were less than 5%. After initial validation studies, the clinical reliability of this method was evaluated using 38 swab samples that were collected from patients suspected of being zoster. Compared to the loop mediated isothermal amplification method, which is defined as the gold standard, cycling probe real-time PCR was highly sensitive and specific. The cycling probe real-time PCR technology is a reliable tool for differentiating between wild-type VZV and vOka strains in clinical samples.
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ABSTRACT: The DNA sequences of the Oka varicella vaccine virus (V-Oka) and its parental virus (P-Oka) were completed. Comparison of the sequences revealed 42 base substitutions, which led to 20 amino acid conversions and length differences in tandem repeat regions (R1, R3, and R4) and in an origin of DNA replication. Amino acid substitutions existed in open reading frames (ORFs) 6, 9A, 10, 21, 31, 39, 50, 52, 55, 59, 62, and 64. Of these, 15 base substitutions, leading to eight amino acid substitutions, were in the gene 62 region alone. Further DNA sequence analysis showed that these substitutions were specific for V-Oka and were not present in nine clinical isolates. The immediate-early gene 62 product (IE62) of P-Oka had stronger transactivational activity than the mutant IE62 contained in V-Oka in 293 and CV-1 cells. An infectious center assay of a plaque-purified clone (S7-01) from the V-Oka with 8 amino acid substitutions in ORF 62 showed smaller plaque formation and less-efficient virus-spreading activity than did P-Oka in human embryonic lung cells. Another clone (S-13) with only five substitutions in ORF 62 spread slightly faster than S7-01 but not as effectively as P-Oka. Moreover, transient luciferase assay in 293 cells showed that transactivational activities of IE62s of S7-01 and S7-13 were lower than that of P-Oka. Based on these results, it appears that amino acid substitutions in ORF 62 are responsible for virus growth and spreading from infected to uninfected cells. Furthermore, the Oka vaccine virus was completely distinguishable from P-Oka and 54 clinical isolates by seven restriction-enzyme fragment length polymorphisms that detected differences in the DNA sequence.Journal of Virology 12/2002; 76(22):11447-59. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.22.11447-11459.2002 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and severity of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia increase with age in association with a progressive decline in cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We tested the hypothesis that vaccination against VZV would decrease the incidence, severity, or both of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults. We enrolled 38,546 adults 60 years of age or older in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an investigational live attenuated Oka/Merck VZV vaccine ("zoster vaccine"). Herpes zoster was diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory criteria. The pain and discomfort associated with herpes zoster were measured repeatedly for six months. The primary end point was the burden of illness due to herpes zoster, a measure affected by the incidence, severity, and duration of the associated pain and discomfort. The secondary end point was the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. More than 95 percent of the subjects continued in the study to its completion, with a median of 3.12 years of surveillance for herpes zoster. A total of 957 confirmed cases of herpes zoster (315 among vaccine recipients and 642 among placebo recipients) and 107 cases of postherpetic neuralgia (27 among vaccine recipients and 80 among placebo recipients) were included in the efficacy analysis. The use of the zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster by 61.1 percent (P<0.001), reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5 percent (P<0.001), and reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51.3 percent (P<0.001). Reactions at the injection site were more frequent among vaccine recipients but were generally mild. The zoster vaccine markedly reduced morbidity from herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2005; 352(22):2271-84. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa051016 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The live attenuated Oka varicella vaccine (vOka), derived from clade 2 wild-type (wt) virus pOka, is used for routine childhood immunization in several countries, including the United States, which has caused dramatic declines in the incidence of varicella. vOka can cause varicella, establish latency, and reactivate to cause herpes zoster (HZ). Three loci in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 62 (ORF62) (106262, 107252, and 108111) are used to distinguish vOka from wt VZV. A fourth position (105705) is also fixed for the vOka allele in nearly all vaccine batches. These 4 positions and two vOka mutations (106710 and 107599) reportedly absent from Varivax were analyzed on Varivax-derived ORF62 TOPO TA clones. The wt allele was detected at positions 105705 and 107252 on 3% and 2% of clones, respectively, but was absent at positions 106262 and 108111. Position 106710 was fixed for the wt allele, whereas the vOka allele was present on 18.4% of clones at position 107599. We also evaluated the 4 vOka markers in an isolate obtained from a case of vaccine-caused HZ. The isolate carried the vOka allele at positions 105705, 106262, and 108111. However, at position 107252, the wt allele was present. Thus, all of the ORF62 vOka markers previously regarded as fixed occur as the wt allele in a small percentage of vOka strains. Characterization of all four vOka markers in ORF62 and of the clade 2 subtype marker in ORF38 is now necessary to confirm vOka adverse events.Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2012; 50(5):1533-8. DOI:10.1128/JCM.06630-11 · 4.23 Impact Factor