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    ABSTRACT: : Injuries from combat and terrorist explosions are increasing worldwide. As such, physicians can expect to treat more patients with complex and unique patterns of injury produced not only by fragments and blunt trauma, but also by high-pressure air expanding from the detonation center. : Tissue damage from the blast wave or primary blast injury can be an important cause of occult trauma to the ocular, aural, pulmonary, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neurologic systems. Awareness of the extensive corporal effects of the blast wave is an essential prerequisite to diagnosis. : This article focuses on the incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, management, and screening for primary blast injury.
    Critical care medicine 08/2008; 36(7 Suppl):S311-7. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumothorax can be spontaneous, traumatic or iatrogenic. Pneumothorax ex vacuo, sports-related pneumothorax and barotrauma unrelated to mechanical ventilation are interesting and newer entities. Management consists of getting rid of the air and prevention of recurrence of pneumothorax.
    Comprehensive Therapy 02/2001; 27(4):311-21.
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    ABSTRACT: To review causes of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum (NSP), identify nonsurgical etiologies, and guide conservative management where appropriate. We conducted a computerized MEDLINE database search from 1970 to 1999 by using key words pneumoperitoneum and benign, nonsurgical, spontaneous, iatrogenic, barotrauma, pneumatosis, diaphragmatic defects, free air, mechanical ventilation, gynecologic, and pelvic. We identified 482 articles by using these keywords and reviewed all articles. Additional articles were identified and selectively reviewed by using key words laparotomy, laparoscopy, and complications. We reviewed all case reports and reviews of NSP, defined as pneumoperitoneum that was successfully managed by observation and supportive care alone or that required a nondiagnostic laparotomy. Each unique cause of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum was recorded. When available, data on nondiagnostic exploratory laparotomies were noted. Case reports were organized by route of introduction of air into the abdominal cavity: abdominal, thoracic, gynecologic, and idiopathic. Most cases of NSP occurred as a procedural complication or as a complication of medical intervention. The most common abdominal etiology of NSP was retained postoperative air (prevalence 25% to 60%). NSP occurred frequently after peritoneal dialysis catheter placement (prevalence 10% to 34%) and after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures (prevalence 0.3% to 25%, varying by procedure). The most common thoracic causes included mechanical ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and pneumothorax. One hundred ninety-six case reports of NSP were recorded, of which 45 involved surgical exploration without evidence of perforated viscus. The clinician should maintain a high index of suspicion for nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum and should recognize that conservative management may be indicated in many cases.
    Critical Care Medicine 08/2000; 28(7):2638-44. · 6.12 Impact Factor