Uncoupling fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 ligand binding specificity leads to Apert syndrome-like phenotypes

Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University Medical School, Campus Box 8103, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.74). 04/2001; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.081082498
Source: PubMed Central
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    ABSTRACT: Craniofacial and neural tissues develop in concert throughout prenatal and postnatal growth. FGFR-related craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Apert syndrome (AS), are associated with specific phenotypes involving both the skull and the brain. We analyzed the effects of the FGFR P253R mutation for AS using the Fgfr2(+/P253R) Apert syndrome mouse to evaluate the effects of this mutation on these two tissues over the course of development from day of birth (P0) to postnatal day 2 (P2). Three-dimensional magnetic resonance microscopy and computed tomography images were acquired from Fgfr2(+/P253R) mice and unaffected littermates at P0 (N = 28) and P2 (N = 20).Three-dimensional coordinate data for 23 skull and 15 brain landmarks were statistically compared between groups. Results demonstrate that the Fgfr2(+/P253R) mice show reduced growth in the facial skeleton and the cerebrum, while the height and width of the neurocranium and caudal regions of the brain show increased growth relative to unaffected littermates. This localized correspondence of differential growth patterns in skull and brain point to their continued interaction through development and suggest that both tissues display divergent postnatal growth patterns relative to unaffected littermates. However, the change in the skull-brain relationship from P0 to P2 implies that each tissue affected by the mutation retains a degree of independence, rather than one tissue directing the development of the other. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) signal in a paracrine or endocrine fashion to mediate a myriad of biological activities, ranging from issuing developmental cues, maintaining tissue homeostasis, and regulating metabolic processes. FGFs carry out their diverse functions by binding and dimerizing FGF receptors (FGFRs) in a heparan sulfate (HS) cofactor- or Klotho coreceptor-assisted manner. The accumulated wealth of structural and biophysical data in the past decade has transformed our understanding of the mechanism of FGF signaling in human health and development, and has provided novel concepts in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Among these contributions are the elucidation of HS-assisted receptor dimerization, delineation of the molecular determinants of ligand-receptor specificity, tyrosine kinase regulation, receptor cis-autoinhibition, and tyrosine trans-autophosphorylation. These structural studies have also revealed how disease-associated mutations highjack the physiological mechanisms of FGFR regulation to contribute to human diseases. In this paper, we will discuss the structurally and biophysically derived mechanisms of FGF signaling, and how the insights gained may guide the development of therapies for treatment of a diverse array of human diseases.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 01/2013; 5(6). · 9.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A S252W mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), which is responsible for nearly two-thirds of Apert syndrome (AS) cases, causes retarded development of the skeleton and skull malformation resulting from premature fusion of the craniofacial sutures. We utilized a Fgfr2(+/S252W) mouse (a knock-in mouse model mimicking human AS) to demonstrate decreased bone mass due to reduced trabecular bone volume, reduced bone mineral density, and shortened growth plates in the long bones. In vitro bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture studies revealed that the mutant mice showed reduced BMSC proliferation, a reduction in chondrogenic differentiation, and reduced mineralization. Our results suggest that these phenomena are caused by up-regulation of p38 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of cultured mutant bone rudiments with SB203580 or PD98059 resulted in partial rescue of the bone growth retardation. The p38 signaling pathway especially was found to be responsible for the retarded long bone development. Our data indicate that the S252W mutation in FGFR2 directly affects endochondral ossification, resulting in growth retardation of the long bone. We also show that the p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathways partially mediate the effects of the S252W mutation of FGFR2 on long bone development.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87311. · 3.73 Impact Factor

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