MLN64 contains a domain with homology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that stimulates steroidogenesis
ABSTRACT MLN64 is a protein that is highly expressed in certain breast carcinomas. The C terminus of MLN64 shares significant homology with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which plays a key role in steroid hormone biosynthesis by enhancing the intramitochondrial translocation of cholesterol to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. We tested the ability of MLN64 to stimulate steroidogenesis by using COS-1 cells cotransfected with plasmids expressing the human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system and wild-type and mutant MLN64 proteins. Wild-type MLN64 increased pregnenolone secretion in this system 2-fold. The steroidogenic activity of MLN64 was found to reside in the C terminus of the protein, because constructs from which the C-terminal StAR homology domain was deleted had no steroidogenic activity. In contrast, removal of N-terminal sequences increased MLN64’s steroidogenesis-enhancing activity. MLN64 mRNA was found in many human tissues, including the placenta and brain, which synthesize steroid hormones but do not express StAR. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of lower molecular weight immunoreactive MLN64 species that contain the C-terminal sequences in human tissues. Homologs of both MLN64 and StAR were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, indicating that the two proteins are ancient. Mutations that inactivate StAR were correlated with amino acid residues that are identical or similar among StAR and MLN64, indicating that conserved motifs are important for steroidogenic activity. We conclude that MLN64 stimulates steroidogenesis by virtue of its homology to StAR.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Michael E Baker, May 30, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Guofan Zhang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background The noble scallop Chlamys nobilis Reeve displays polymorphism in shell and muscle colors. Previous research showed that the orange scallops with orange shell and muscle had a significantly higher carotenoid content than the brown ones with brown shell and white muscle. There is currently a need to identify candidate genes associated with carotenoid-based coloration.Methods and resultsIn the present study, 454 GS-FLX sequencing of noble scallop transcriptome yielded 1,181,060 clean sequence reads, which were assembled into 49,717 isotigs, leaving 110,158 reads as the singletons. Of the 159,875 unique sequences, 11.84% isotigs and 9.35% singletons were annotated. Moreover, 3,844 SSRs and over 120,000 high confidence variants (SNPs and INDELs) were identified. Especially, one class B scavenge receptor termed SRB-like-3 was discovered to express only in orange scallops and absent in brown ones, suggesting a significant association with high carotenoid content. Down-regulation of SRB-like-3 mRNA by RNA interference remarkably decreased blood carotenoid, providing compelling evidence that SRB-like-3 is an ideal candidate gene controlling carotenoid deposition and determining orange coloration.Conclusion Transcriptome analysis of noble scallop reveals a novel scavenger receptor significantly associated with orange scallop rich in carotenoid content. Our findings pave the way for further functional elucidation of this gene and molecular basis of carotenoid deposition in orange scallop.BMC Genomics 02/2015; 16(1):44. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1241-x · 4.04 Impact Factor
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 12/2002; 29(3):327-345. DOI:10.1677/jme.0.0290327 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein controls the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis: the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Early studies indicated that rate of transcription of the StAR gene is a primary determinant of steroidogenesis. The transcription factors that govern basal and cAMP-dependent StAR expression are reviewed, as are new findings regarding chromatin modifications associated with activation of the StAR promoter. Molecular genetic studies of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, a rare disease caused by mutations in the StAR gene, and structure-function studies defined two major domains within the StAR protein, the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and the C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, which promotes the translocation of cholesterol between the two mitochondrial membranes. Several models of StAR's mechanism of action have been proposed based on a combination of structure/function studies or on the crystal structure of a related START domain. The models—intermembrane shuttle hypothesis, and cholesterol desorption hypothesis—are discussed with respect to the known biochemical and biophysical events associated with steroidogenesis and the structure of StAR.Archives of Medical Research 11/2001; 32(6):576-586. DOI:10.1016/S0188-4409(01)00338-1 · 2.41 Impact Factor