Parental Perceptions of Academic Performance and Attainment of Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
and †Department of Educational Psychology, Baylor University, Waco, TX.The Journal of nervous and mental disease (Impact Factor: 1.69). 07/2013; 201(7):598-601. DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182982939
We examined parental perceptions of academic performance and attainment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both parent and child gender along with the interaction of parent and child gender. The current study adds to the body of research by examining the perceptions of parents of children with ADHD according to both parent and child gender. The results indicate that fathers, on the whole, seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their children as compared with mothers. With regard to child gender, the fathers seemed less likely to consider ADHD to have negative academic implications for their sons over their daughters. The results suggest that interventions for parents of children with ADHD should be targeted to fathers with sons with ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: Compared 16 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined type (ADHD-C), 14 children with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and 17 controls on parent and teacher ratings of social status and performance, self-report of social knowledge and performance, and observations of behavior on an emotional regulation task. Analyses revealed distinct patterns of social dysfunction between ADHD subgroups. Children with ADHD-C were rated as showing more aggressive behavior; furthermore, they displayed emotional dysregulation characterized by high intensity and high levels of both positive and negative behavior. In contrast, children with ADHD-I were perceived as displaying social passivity and showed deficits in social knowledge on the self-report measure but did not evidence problems in emotional regulation. Regression analyses revealed that social performance, emotional regulation, and, to a lesser degree, social knowledge, were predictive of social status. The application of these findings to understanding the nature of the social deficits in the ADHD subtypes and directions for future research are discussed.Journal of clinical child psychology 04/2000; 29(1):30-42. DOI:10.1207/S15374424jccp2901_4
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ABSTRACT: In 1992, the National Institute of Mental Health and 6 teams of investigators began a multisite clinical trial, the Multimodal Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA) study. Five hundred seventy-nine children were randomly assigned to either routine community care (CC) or one of three study-delivered treatments, all lasting 14 months. The three MTA treatments-monthly medication management (usually methylphenidate) following weekly titration (MedMgt), intensive behavioral treatment (Beh), and the combination (Comb)-were designed to reflect known best practices within each treatment approach. Children were assessed at four time points in multiple outcome. Results indicated that Comb and MedMgt interventions were substantially superior to Beh and CC interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. For other functioning domains (social skills, academics, parent-child relations, oppositional behavior, anxiety/depression), results suggested slight advantages of Comb over single treatments (MedMgt, Beh) and community care. High quality medication treatment characterized by careful yet adequate dosing, three times daily methylphenidate administration, monthly follow-up visits, and communication with schools conveyed substantial benefits to those children that received it. In contrast to the overall study findings that showed the largest benefits for high quality medication management (regardless of whether given in the MedMgt or Comb group), secondary analyses revealed that Comb had a significant incremental effect over MedMgt (with a small effect size for this comparison) when categorical indicators of excellent response and when composite outcome measures were used. In addition, children with parent-defined comorbid anxiety disorders, particularly those with overlapping disruptive disorder comorbidities, showed preferential benefits to the Beh and Comb interventions. Parental attitudes and disciplinary practices appeared to mediate improved response to the Beh and Comb interventions.Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 03/2001; 22(1):60-73. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to achieve lower grades at school than their peers. Does this extend to pupils who are apparently exceptionally inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive, but have not been diagnosed as having ADHD? This study determined the proportion of children who were assessed by their teachers as exceptionally inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive in the classroom. The relationships between these traits, achievement and progress were examined. The participants comprised 4148 children from a nationally representative sample of schools in England. Reading and mathematics achievement of the participants was assessed at the start and end of the reception year, and in year 2. Behaviour was assessed at the end of reception using a rating scale based on the diagnostic criteria for ADHD (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The proportion of children with exceptional scores on the behaviour rating scale was reported. The reading and mathematics attainment and value-added of children with high scores on the behaviour rating scale were found to be educationally and statistically significantly lower than children with zero scores. The achievement of children with high scores on the behaviour rating scale replicated previous studies which investigated the achievement of children with ADHD. The behaviour rating scale could be a useful tool for raising the awareness of teachers to young children with severe behavioural problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity who have not been diagnosed as having ADHD but may nevertheless be at risk of similar outcomes.British Journal of Educational Psychology 04/2001; 71(Pt 1):43-56. DOI:10.1348/000709901158389 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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