Use of the revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children.

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001, USA.
Journal of Traumatic Stress (Impact Factor: 2.72). 07/2009; 22(3):248-53. DOI: 10.1002/jts.20410
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Posttraumatic growth (PTG; positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma) was examined among children impacted by Hurricane Katrina. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R) assessed PTG at two time points, 12 (T1) and 22 months (T2) posthurricane. The PTGI-C-R demonstrated good reliability. Analyses focused on trauma-related variables in predicting PTG. Child-reported subjective responses to the hurricane and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) correlated with PTG at T1; however, in the regression, only PTSS significantly explained variance in PTG. At follow-up, T1 PTG was the only significant predictor of PTG. Findings suggest that the PTGI-C-R may assist efforts to understand children's responses posttrauma.

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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic experiences can have a powerful impact on individuals and communities but the relationship between perceptions of beneficial and pathological outcomes are not known. Therefore, this meta-analysis examined both the strength and the linearity of the relationship between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and perceptions of posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as identifying the potential moderating roles of trauma type and age. Literature searches of all languages were conducted using the ProQuest, Wiley Interscience, ScienceDirect, Informaworld and Web of Science databases. Linear and quadratic (curvilinear) rs as well as βs were analysed. Forty-two studies (N=11,469) that examined both PTG and symptoms of PTSD were included in meta-analytic calculations. The combined studies yielded a significant linear relationship between PTG and PTSD symptoms (r=0.315, CI=0.299, 0.331), but also a significantly stronger (as tested by Fisher's transformation) curvilinear relationship (r=0.372, CI=0.353, 0.391). The strength and linearity of these relationships differed according to trauma type and age. The results remind those working with traumatised people that positive and negative post-trauma outcomes can co-occur. A focus only on PTSD symptoms may limit or slow recovery and mask the potential for growth.
    Journal of anxiety disorders 11/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were threefold: (1) examine the prevalence of Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) among severely traumatized youth, (2) systematically describe the PTG reported, and (3) study the course of PTG from pre- to post-treatment. METHOD: The sample consisted of 148 severely traumatized Norwegian youth (M age=15, SD=2.2, 79.1% girls) receiving treatment in child mental health clinics. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children (CAPS) was used to assess level of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) pre- and post-treatment. One of the questions in CAPS: "How do you think (traumatic event) has affected your life?" formed the basis for our analysis of PTG. Words and phrases indicative of PTG were identified using the Consensual Qualitative Research method. RESULTS: Pre-treatment, the prevalence rate of PTG was low compared to previous findings, and reports of PTG were not related to levels of PTSS. The main PTG themes identified were: personal growth, relational growth, and changed philosophy of life. A sub-theme of personal growth; greater maturity/wisdom, was the most salient theme identified both pre- and post-treatment. Age was significantly related to reports of PTG; older participants reported more growth. Reports of PTG increased significantly from pre- to post-treatment, but were not related to decrease in PTSS. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that PTG is not only possible for youth, but quite similar to that observed among adults. However, we need to carefully consider whether reports of self-perceived positive change among traumatized youth actually are indicative of growth, or simply indicative of increased vulnerability.
    Child abuse & neglect 03/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Pediatric medical experiences are potentially traumatic but may lead to psychological growth. Objective: The study objective was to synthesize the published literature regarding posttraumatic growth (PTG) in parents and patients with serious pediatric illness (SPI) into a conceptual model. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Sociological Abstracts in December 2012 to identify articles on stress or trauma caused by medical events with PTG as an outcome, reviewing articles pertaining to the pediatric population. We additionally reviewed articles outside pediatric medicine that described a model of PTG. Results: Of the 605 articles identified, 55 met inclusion criteria, 26 of which examined parents or pediatric patients. Parents and children may experience PTG following medical trauma through a combination of cognitive and affective processing of their subjective experience. Components of SPI-PTG are unclear, but may include greater appreciation of life, improved interpersonal relationships, greater personal strength, recognition of new possibilities in one's life course, spiritual or religious growth, and reconstruction of a positive body image. Individual characteristics, and the level of social support, may affect the likelihood that SPI-PTG will occur. SPI-PTG in siblings and other family members has not been well studied. Conclusions: SPI-PTG is an important but understudied and inadequately understood phenomenon affecting children with SPI and their family members. Research should focus on clarifying SPI-PTG domains, creating measurement instruments, assessing SPI-PTG across the pediatric age range and among family members, and improving our understanding of and ability to positively intervene regarding the cognitive processes of rumination, sense making, and benefit finding.
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