Can routine surveillance samples from tracheal aspirate predict bacterial flora in cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia?
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that periodical sampling of the tracheo-bronchial tree in the absence of clinical suspicion of pneumonia is useful to identify bacteria responsible for subsequent late ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). This was a retrospective observational human study carried out in two medical-surgical intensive care units of two different hospitals. From January 1999 to December 2000, 559 patients, who received invasive respiratory support for more than 48 hours, were screened.
Tracheal aspiration (TA) was performed once or twice weekly in all mechanically ventilated patients. The microbiological findings from TA surveillance cultures done in the eight days before suspicion of VAP were compared to those isolated from the positive diagnostic samples done for late onset VAP (after more than four days of mechanical ventilation). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values of the ability of the surveillance sample to anticipate the VAP pathogen were calculated.
Among the microorganisms isolated from TA, 68% were retrieved from diagnostic samples. All VAP pathogens previously isolated were from 43% of the TA samples. If TA was collected 2-4 days before the clinical diagnosis of VAP, pathogens were detected in 58% of samples. In contrast, only 27% were collected more than four days earlier (P<0.05). The positive predictive values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from routine TA samples were 92% and 90%, respectively. The negative predictive values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from routine TA samples were 75% and 89%, respectively.
TA cultures in ventilated patients may help to predict pathogens. Early detection may lead to earlier treatment in long term ventilated patients when VAP is suspected.
- SourceAvailable from: Nele Brusselaers[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), early appropriate antimicrobial therapy may be hampered by involvement of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. METHODS: A systematic review and diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis were performed to analyse whether lower respiratory tract surveillance cultures accurately predict the causative pathogens of subsequent VAP in adult patients. Selection and assessment of eligibility were performed by three investigators by mutual consideration. Of the 525 studies retrieved, 14 were eligible for inclusion (all in English; published since 1994), accounting for 791 VAP episodes. The following data were collected: study and population characteristics; in- and exclusion criteria; diagnostic criteria for VAP; microbiological workup of surveillance and diagnostic VAP cultures. Sub-analyses were conducted for VAP caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp., and Acinetobacter spp., MDR microorganisms, frequency of sampling, and consideration of all versus the most recent surveillance cultures. RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed a high accuracy of surveillance cultures, with pooled sensitivities up to 0.75 and specificities up to 0.92 in culture-positive VAP. The area under the curve (AUC) of the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve demonstrates moderate accuracy (AUC: 0.90) in predicting multidrug resistance. A sampling frequency of >2/week (sensitivity 0.79; specificity 0.96) and consideration of only the most recent surveillance culture (sensitivity 0.78; specificity 0.96) are associated with a higher accuracy of prediction. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for the benefit of surveillance cultures in predicting MDR bacterial pathogens in VAP. However, clinical and statistical heterogeneity, limited samples sizes, and bias remain important limitations of this meta-analysis.European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 11/2012; · 5.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the role of colonizers in the causation of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the value of routine pre-VAP endotracheal aspirate (EA) cultures in appropriately treating VAP. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted over a period of 15 months. Two hundred patients on mechanical ventilation for>48h were studied. Acinetobacter spp (33.7%) and Pseudomonas spp (29.8%) were the most common colonizers. Of the 200 patients, 36 developed VAP. In 20 VAP patients, the pre-VAP EA culture-based strategy was not useful. However, in the remaining 16 VAP patients, a pre-VAP EA culture-based strategy would have appropriately treated 13 (81%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 62-100%), in comparison to only nine (56%; 95% CI 32-80%) by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) strategy. The seven patients in whom the ATS guidelines were inappropriate had Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas spp resistant to the higher antibiotics recommended by the ATS for multidrug-resistant pathogens. The positive predictive values of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from pre-VAP EA cultures were 88%, 83%, and 100%, respectively. VAP patients should be treated based on ATS guidelines, but whenever P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and MRSA are isolated from pre-VAP EA cultures, the initial antibiotic therapy should be extended to treat these.International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 14(8):e723-9. · 2.17 Impact Factor