The role of concussion history and gender in recovery from soccer-related concussion.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to investigate differences in recovery in male and female soccer athletes.
Soccer players with a history of concussion will perform worse on neurocognitive testing than players without a history of concussion. Furthermore, female athletes will demonstrate poorer performance on neurocognitive testing than male athletes.
Cohort study (prognosis): Level of evidence, 2.
Computer-based neuropsychological testing using reaction time, memory, and visual motor-speed composite scores of the ImPACT test battery was performed postconcussion in soccer players ranging in age from 8 to 24 years (N = 234; 141 females, 93 males). A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to examine group differences in neurocognitive performance between male and female athletes with and without a history of concussion.
Soccer players with a history of at least 1 previous concussion performed significantly worse on ImPACT than those who had not sustained a prior concussion (F = 2.92, P =.03). In addition, female soccer players performed worse on neurocognitive testing (F = 2.72, P =.05) and also reported more symptoms (F = 20.1, P =.00001) than male soccer players. There was no significant difference in body mass index between male and female players (F =.04, P =.85).
A history of concussion and gender may account for significant differences in postconcussive neurocognitive test scores in soccer players and may play a role in determining recovery. These differences do not appear to reflect differences in mass between genders and may be related to other gender-specific factors that deserve further study.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Head injuries are common in pediatrics, and headaches are the most common complaint following mild head trauma. Although moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries occur less frequently, headaches can complicate recovery. There is currently an intense spotlight on concussion and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of children seeking care for headache after mild traumatic brain injury or concussion. Understanding the natural history of, and recognition of factors that are associated with posttraumatic headache will help providers and families to limit disability and may prompt earlier intervention to address disabling headaches. While there are few studies on the treatment of posttraumatic headache, proper evaluation and management of posttraumatic headaches is essential to prevent further injury and to promote recovery. In this article, we will review the current definitions and epidemiology of pediatric posttraumatic headache and discuss current recommendations for the evaluation and management of this syndrome in children and adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.Journal of Child Neurology 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/0883073814568152 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.Frontiers in Neurology 04/2015; 6:69. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2015.00069
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Several studies have demonstrated that age and sex may influence concussion recovery time frames, with female athletes and adolescents being potentially more susceptible to a protracted recovery course. Currently, limited work has examined the influence sex may have on concussion management strategies and treatment interventions, especially for younger individuals suffering persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. Hypothesis: Female athletes are prescribed more treatment interventions than male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for adolescent athletes presenting to a sports medicine concussion clinic between September 2010 and September 2011. Results: A total of 266 adolescent athletes were evaluated and treated for concussion. Female athletes had a longer recovery course (P = 0.002) and required more treatment interventions (P < 0.001) for their symptoms and dysfunction. Female athletes were more likely to require academic accommodations (P < 0.001), vestibular therapy (P < 0.001), or medication (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Medical providers should be aware that during the recovery course, adolescent female athletes may require a management plan that will most likely include additional treatment interventions beyond the standard cognitive and physical rest. Clinical Relevance: Treatment interventions are more commonly prescribed for adolescent female athletes than for adolescent male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. This highlights the need for identifying evidence-based clinical management guidelines that focus on sex, especially when dealing with persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions.Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 01/2015; 7(1):52-57. DOI:10.1177/1941738114555075