Physiological recordings: Basic concepts and implementation during functional magnetic resonance imaging

Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre and Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer Campus, UK.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2009; 47(3):1105-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Combining human functional neuroimaging with other forms of psychophysiological measurement, including autonomic monitoring, provides an empirical basis for understanding brain-body interactions. This approach can be applied to characterize unwanted physiological noise, examine the neural control and representation of bodily processes relevant to health and morbidity, and index covert expression of affective and cognitive processes to enhance the interpretation of task-evoked regional brain activity. In recent years, human neuroimaging has been dominated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The spatiotemporal information of fMRI regarding central neural activity is valuably complemented by parallel physiological monitoring, yet such studies still remain in the minority. This review article highlights fMRI studies that employed cardiac, vascular, respiratory, electrodermal, gastrointestinal and pupillary psychophysiological indices to address specific questions regarding interaction between brain and bodily state in the context of experience, cognition, emotion and behaviour. Physiological monitoring within the fMRI environment presents specific technical issues, most importantly related to safety. Mechanical and electrical hazards may present dangers to scanned subjects, operator and/or equipment. Furthermore, physiological monitoring may interfere with the quality of neuroimaging data, or itself be compromised by artefacts induced by the operation of the scanner. We review the sources of these potential problems and the current approaches and advice to enable the combination of fMRI and physiological monitoring in a safe and effective manner.

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Available from: Neil A Harrison, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Arguably, the field has been restrained by technical challenges, for example in combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with detailed autonomic recording or associated experimental manipulations. However, such difficulties can and have been overcome (Gray et al., 2009a). Perhaps as relevant is a historical cultural stance that has rather underplayed the integration, across the neuraxis, of dynamic autonomic control and its contribution to perceptual, cognitive, motivational and volitional processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behavior. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated) physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviors, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain's representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 08/2015; 9:286. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00286 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    • "cortex. On the other hand, Gray et al. (2009) emphasized the value of physiological recordings in fMRI analysis to investigate the brain–body interaction for emotional/cognitive neuroscience and psychosomatic medicine. In line with the theoretical proposals of Damasio and Critchley, Beissner, Meissner, Bar, and Napadow (2013) performed a meta-analysis based on 43 neuroimaging studies that used simultaneous autonomic measures in the fMRI analysis as regressors of interest to identify the central autonomic network, which included left amygdala, right anterior and left posterior insula, and mid-cingulate cortex, most of which are important parts of the salience network (Seeley et al., 2007). "
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    Brain and Language 01/2015; 142:96-114. DOI:10.1016/j.bandl.2015.01.011 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    • "and radio frequency artifacts in the EEG and EMG signals were removed by means of average model subtraction followed by adaptive filtering; the ballistocardiogram was subsequently removed using a similar approach, with each QRS complex being identified (Allen et al. 1998, 2000; Gray et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Multimodal human brain mapping has been proposed as an integrated approach capable of improving the recognition of the cortical correlates of specific neurological functions. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and EEG-TD-fNIRS (time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy) recordings to compare different hemodynamic methods with changes in EEG in ten patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and 12 healthy controls. We evaluated O2Hb, HHb and Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes and event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) in the α and β bands of all of the subjects while they performed a simple motor task. The general linear model was used to obtain comparable fMRI and TD-fNIRS activation maps. We also analyzed cortical thickness in order to evaluate any structural changes. In the patients, the TD-NIRS and fMRI data significantly correlated and showed a significant lessening of the increase in O2Hb and the decrease in BOLD. The post-movement β rebound was minimal or absent in patients. Cortical thickness was moderately reduced in the motor area of the patients and correlated with the reduction in the hemodynamic signals. The fMRI and TD-NIRS results were consistent, significantly correlated and showed smaller hemodynamic changes in the patients. This finding may be partially attributable to mild cortical thickening. However, cortical hyperexcitability, which is known to generate myoclonic jerks and probably accounts for the lack of EEG β-ERS, did not reflect any increased energy requirement. We hypothesize that this is due to a loss of inhibitory neuronal components that typically fire at high frequencies.
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