Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health.
ABSTRACT Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are degenerative diseases frequently associated with aging. The loss of bone and muscle results in significant morbidity, so preventing or attenuating osteoporosis and sarcopenia is an important public health goal. Dietary protein is crucial for development of bone and muscle, and recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein above the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) may help maintain bone and muscle mass in older individuals. Several epidemiological and clinical studies point to a salutary effect of protein intakes above the current RDA (0.8 g/kg per day) for adults aged 19 and older. There is evidence that the anabolic response of muscle to dietary protein is attenuated in elderly people, and as a result, the amount of protein needed to achieve anabolism is greater. Dietary protein also increases circulating insulin-like growth factor, which has anabolic effects on muscle and bone. Furthermore, increasing dietary protein increases calcium absorption, which could be anabolic for bone. Available evidence supports a beneficial effect of short-term protein intakes up to 1.6 to 1.8 g/kg per day, although long-term studies are needed to show safety and efficacy. Future studies should employ functional measures indicative of protein adequacy, as well as measures of muscle protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle and bone tissue, to determine the optimal level of dietary protein. Given the available data, increasing the RDA for older individuals to 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg per day would maintain normal calcium metabolism and nitrogen balance without affecting renal function and may represent a compromise while longer-term protein supplement trials are pending.
- SourceAvailable from: Tommy Cederholm[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made (a) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day, (b) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (c) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 04/2014; · 3.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of the dietary amount and source of protein on bone status in rats. 140 male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n = 35) fed normal-protein (NP, 10% richness) or high-protein (HP, 45% richness) diets based on whey protein (WP) or soy protein (SP) sources for 12 weeks. Plasma urea was 46% higher for the HP compared to the NP diet (p < 0.001). Urinary calcium was 65% higher for the HP compared to the NP and 60% higher for the WP compared to the SP diets (all, p < 0.001). Urinary pH was 8% more acidic in the HP compared to the NP diet (p < 0.001) and 4% in the WP compared to the SP diet (p < 0.01). The plasma osteocalcin concentration was 19% higher for the NP compared to the HP (p < 0.05) and 25% for the SP compared to the WP diets (p < 0.01). Femur ash, metaphyseal and diaphyseal cross-sectional, trabecular and cortical areas were 3% higher in the HP compared to the NP diet (all, p < 0.05). Femur diaphyseal periosteal and endocortical perimeters were also 3% higher in the HP compared to the NP diet (both, p < 0.01). Groups fed the SP diet showed 2% higher femur ash percentage, 7% higher calcium content (both, p < 0.001), and 3% higher diaphyseal cortical area and thickness (both, p < 0.05) than those fed the WP diet. Some interactions were found, such as the greater effects of the SP diet on decreasing the higher plasma urea concentration promoted by the intake of the HP diet (p < 0.001). Under adequate Ca intake, HP diets could better maintain bone properties than NP diets, even with increasing some acidity markers, which could be reduced by the intake of SP sources.Food & Function 02/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
Dataset: JAMDA PROT-AGE paper - reprint