Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health.
ABSTRACT Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are degenerative diseases frequently associated with aging. The loss of bone and muscle results in significant morbidity, so preventing or attenuating osteoporosis and sarcopenia is an important public health goal. Dietary protein is crucial for development of bone and muscle, and recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein above the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) may help maintain bone and muscle mass in older individuals. Several epidemiological and clinical studies point to a salutary effect of protein intakes above the current RDA (0.8 g/kg per day) for adults aged 19 and older. There is evidence that the anabolic response of muscle to dietary protein is attenuated in elderly people, and as a result, the amount of protein needed to achieve anabolism is greater. Dietary protein also increases circulating insulin-like growth factor, which has anabolic effects on muscle and bone. Furthermore, increasing dietary protein increases calcium absorption, which could be anabolic for bone. Available evidence supports a beneficial effect of short-term protein intakes up to 1.6 to 1.8 g/kg per day, although long-term studies are needed to show safety and efficacy. Future studies should employ functional measures indicative of protein adequacy, as well as measures of muscle protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle and bone tissue, to determine the optimal level of dietary protein. Given the available data, increasing the RDA for older individuals to 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg per day would maintain normal calcium metabolism and nitrogen balance without affecting renal function and may represent a compromise while longer-term protein supplement trials are pending.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetic older adults are at a higher risk of muscle strength (MS) decline than their non-diabetic counterparts. Adequate protein and energy intakes and physical activity (PA) may preserve MS during aging. However, the role of diet quality (DQ) in MS maintenance is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the association between DQ - alone or combined with PA - and changes in MS over 3years in diabetic participants aged 67 to 84years at recruitment in a secondary analysis of the longitudinal observational NuAge study. Changes in handgrip, knee extensor and elbow flexor strength were calculated as the difference between recruitment (T1) and after 3years (T4) in 156 diabetic older adults. Baseline DQ was calculated from 3 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls collected at T1 using the validated Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Change in PA was calculated from Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) as PASE T4-PASE T1. Four combinations of variables were created: C-HEI<70 with PASE change either median and C-HEI ≥70 with PASE change either median. The association between these four categories and MS maintenance were evaluated using General Linear Modeling (GLM). Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for covariates. Baseline DQ alone was not associated with MS maintenance. Baseline DQ combined with PASE change showed associations with crude and baseline adjusted handgrip strength (p=0.031, p=0.018) and crude and baseline adjusted elbow flexor change (p=0.028, p=0.017) in males only; no significant results were found for knee extensor strength in either males or females. While findings for females were inconclusive, results demonstrate that better adherence to dietary guidelines combined with a more active lifestyle may prevent MS decline among diabetic older males. Additional research is needed on a larger sample since generalization of these results is limited by the small sample size.Experimental gerontology 11/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein-induced changes in bone and calcium homeostasis could potentially be greater in the elderly and in women at risk for osteoporosis. We hypothesize that a low protein intake would magnify the negative changes in bone metabolism seen in vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency and/or estrogen deficiency. The present study was undertaken to better understand how a low protein diet along with vitD insufficiency could affect bone metabolism using a rodent ovariectomized (OVX) model. Rats (n = 60) underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation. The first 15 days after surgery, all rats were fed a standard rodent diet. Thereafter, rats (n = 10/group) were fed a low protein diet (LP; 2.5 %) or a control diet (NP; 12.5 %) with 100 IU% vitD (+D; cholecalciferol) or without vitD (-D) for 45 days. The groups were as follows: SHAM + NP + D (control); SHAM + LP + D; SHAM + LP - D; OVX + NP + D; OVX + LP + D; OVX + LP - D. Body weight (BW) of control and OVX + NP + D groups increased while those feeding the LP diet, independently of vitD feedings, decreased (p < 0.05). The OVX + LP - D group presented the lowest serum Ca, phosphorus and osteocalcin levels and the highest CTX levels (p < 0.05). At the end of the study, total skeleton bone mineral content, proximal tibia bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular number levels decreased as follows: SHAM + NP + D (controls) > SHAM + LP + D > OVX + NP + D > SHAM + LP - D > OVX + LP + D > OVX + LP - D (p < 0.05). A low protein diet negatively affected bone mass and magnified the detrimental effects of vitD and/or estrogen deficiencies.Calcified Tissue International 05/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The risk of fragility fractures exponentially increases with aging. Reduced mass and strength of both bone in osteoporosis and skeletal muscle in sarcopenia play a key role in the age-related incidence of fragility fractures. Undernutrition is often observed in the elderly, particularly in those subjects experiencing osteoporotic fractures, more likely as a cause than a consequence. Calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), vitamin D, and protein are nutrients that impact bone and skeletal muscle integrity. Deficiency in the supply of these nutrients increases with aging. Dairy foods are rich in Ca, Pi, and proteins and in many countries are fortified with vitamin D. Dairy foods are important souces of these nutrients and go a long way to meeting the recommendations, which increase with aging. This review emphaszes the interactions between these 4 nutrients, which, along with physical activity, act through cellular and physiological pathways favoring the maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle structure and function.Journal of the American College of Nutrition 08/2013; 32(4):251-63. · 1.74 Impact Factor