Article

Effects of Manure and Water Applications on 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin Emissions in a Field Trial

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Water Management Research Unit, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, California 93648, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.11). 06/2009; 57(12):5428-34. DOI: 10.1021/jf900245f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Minimizing fumigant emissions is required for meeting air-quality standards. Application of organic materials to surface soil has been effective in reducing fumigant emissions during laboratory tests, but the potential to reduce emissions in the field has not been adequately evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of incorporated composted manure with or without water applications on fumigant emissions and the potential impact on pest control efficacy under field conditions. Treatments included a bare-soil control, composted dairy manure at 12.4 and 24.7 Mg ha(-1), postfumigation intermittent water seals (11 mm water irrigated immediately following fumigation and 4 mm at 12, 24, and 48 h), and incorporation of manure at 12.4 Mg ha(-1) combined with the water seals or a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp. Telone C35 was shank-applied at 553 kg ha(-1), and emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were monitored for 10 days. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in emission peak flux and cumulative emission loss between the control and the 12.4 Mg ha(-1) manure treatment. The higher manure rate (24.7 Mg ha(-1)) resulted in lower emission flux and cumulative emission loss than 12.4 Mg ha(-1), although the differences were only significant for CP. In contrast, the water treatments with or without manure incorporation significantly reduced peak emission rates (80% reduction) and cumulative emission loss ( approximately 50% reduction). The manure + HDPE treatment resulted in the lowest CP emissions but slightly higher 1,3-D emissions than the water treatments. Reductions in peak emission from water treatments can be important in reducing the potential acute exposure risks to workers and bystanders. This research demonstrated that incorporation of composted manure alone did not reduce fumigant emissions and effective emission reduction with manure amendment may require higher application rates and/or more effective materials than those used in this study.

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    • "Emission sampling in all field trials was carried out using dynamic flux chambers by trapping the fumigants on either charcoal (for 1,3-D only) or XAD (for both 1,3-D and CP) sampling tubes. Some information about these chambers was provided in Gao et al. (2008) The samples were extracted and analyzed for the fumigants following similar procedures reported earlier (e.g., Gao et al., 2009). Both emission flux and cumulative emission loss were computed. "
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