The effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in 32 controlled trials in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT In 32 controlled trials of calcium supplementation (700-2000 mg) in 3,169 postmenopausal women, mean bone loss in the controls was -1.07% p.a. and in the treated subjects -0.27% p.a. (P for difference <0.001). The effect was similar at all measured sites and at all doses of 700 mg or more but became weaker after 4 years.
We have reviewed 32 trials of calcium supplementation in 3,169 postmenopausal women.
We found 24 publications reporting 32 controlled trials lasting at least 1 year, which provided annual percentage changes in bone mass or density at one or more sites in the calcium-treated and control subjects.
The median calcium supplement was 1,000 mg, median duration of the trials 2 years and total number of sites measured 79. The average of the mean rates of change in bone mass or density was -1.07% p.a. (P < 0.001) in the controls and -0.27% p.a. (ns) in the treated subjects (P for difference < 0.001). The effect of calcium was much the same at all measured sites (forearm/hand, proximal femur, spine, and total body and others). Supplements of less than 700 mg were not effective, but there was no significant beneficial effect of higher doses. There was significantly faster bone loss at total calcium intakes below 1,150 mg than on intakes over 1,350 mg. The effect of calcium appeared to be lost after 4 years of treatment.
Calcium supplementation of about 1,000 mg daily has a significant preventive effect on bone loss in postmenopausal women for at least 4 years.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium supplements were tested in pregnancy and lactation, in childhood and adolescence, in pre- and postmenopausal women and in elderly persons with various effects on bone density and fracture incidence. They must be properly chosen and adequately used. In this case, the reported minor negative side-effects do not restrict their use. All these aspects are reviewed here.10/2014; 3:579. DOI:10.1038/bonekey.2014.74
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ABSTRACT: Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products.Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2013; 28(6):2039-89. DOI:10.3305/nh.2013.28.6.6856 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This 24-mo randomized, double-blind, controlled trial aimed to examine whether supplementation with a natural marine-derived multi-mineral supplement rich in calcium (Ca) taken alone and in conjunction with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOSs) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal women. A total of 300 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca, 800 mg of Ca with 3.6 g of scFOS (CaFOS), or 9 g of maltodextrin. BMD was measured before and after intervention along with BTMs, which were also measured at 12 mo. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA identified that the change in BMD in the Ca and CaFOS groups did not differ from that in the maltodextrin group. Secondary analysis of changes to BTMs over time identified a greater decline in osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in the Ca group compared with the maltodextrin group at 12 mo. A greater decline in CTX was observed at 12 mo and a greater decline in osteocalcin was observed at 24 mo in the CaFOS group compared with the maltodextrin group. In exploratory subanalyses of each treatment group against the maltodextrin group, women classified with osteopenia and taking CaFOS had a smaller decline in total-body (P = 0.03) and spinal (P = 0.03) BMD compared with the maltodextrin group, although this effect was restricted to those with higher total-body and mean spinal BMD at baseline, respectively. Although the change in BMD observed did not differ between the groups, the greater decline in BTMs in the Ca and CaFOS groups compared with the maltodextrin group suggests a more favorable bone health profile after supplementation with Ca and CaFOS. Supplementation with CaFOS slowed the rate of total-body and spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia-an effect that warrants additional investigation. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN63118444.Journal of Nutrition 01/2014; 144(3). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.188144 · 4.23 Impact Factor