Cerebellar development in a baboon model of preterm delivery: impact of specific ventilatory regimes.
ABSTRACT Premature infants now have an improved chance of survival, but the impact of respiratory therapies on the brain, particularly the cerebellum, remains unclear. We examined the effects of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (EnCPAP) ventilation and delayed (Dn) CPAP on the development of the cerebellum in prematurely delivered baboons. The baboons were delivered at 125 +/- 2days of gestation and ventilated for 28 days with either EnCPAP commencing at 24 hours (n = 5) or DnCPAP commencing at 5 days (n = 5). Gestational controls (n = 4) were delivered at 153 days. Cerebella were assessed histologically, and an ontogeny study (90 days to term) was performed to establish values for key cerebellar developmental indicators. Cerebellar weight was reduced in DnCPAP but not EnCPAP animals versus controls; cerebellar/total brain weight ratio was increased in EnCPAP (p < 0.05) versus control and DnCPAP animals. There was no overt damage in the cerebella of any animals, but a microstructural alteration index based on morphological developmental parameters and microglial immunoreactivity was increased in both prematurely delivered cohorts versus controls (p < 0.001) and was higher in DnCPAP than EnCPAP animals (p < 0.05). These results indicate that respiratory regimens can influence cerebellar development and that early compared with delayed extubation to nCPAP seems to be beneficial.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human brain spontaneously generates neural oscillations with a large variability in frequency, amplitude, duration, and recurrence. Little, however, is known about the long-term spatiotemporal structure of the complex patterns of ongoing activity. A central unresolved issue is whether fluctuations in oscillatory activity reflect a memory of the dynamics of the system for more than a few seconds. We investigated the temporal correlations of network oscillations in the normal human brain at time scales ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. Ongoing activity during eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was recorded with simultaneous magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. Here we show that amplitude fluctuations of 10 and 20 Hz oscillations are correlated over thousands of oscillation cycles. Our analyses also indicated that these amplitude fluctuations obey power-law scaling behavior. The scaling exponents were highly invariant across subjects. We propose that the large variability, the long-range correlations, and the power-law scaling behavior of spontaneous oscillations find a unifying explanation within the theory of self-organized criticality, which offers a general mechanism for the emergence of correlations and complex dynamics in stochastic multiunit systems. The demonstrated scaling laws pose novel quantitative constraints on computational models of network oscillations. We argue that critical-state dynamics of spontaneous oscillations may lend neural networks capable of quick reorganization during processing demands.Journal of Neuroscience 03/2001; 21(4):1370-7. · 7.11 Impact Factor