Mitochondrial Cholesterol Loading Exacerbates Amyloid beta Peptide-Induced Inflammation and Neurotoxicity
ABSTRACT The role of cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the generation of toxic amyloid beta peptides (Abeta). Using genetic mouse models of cholesterol loading, we examined whether mitochondrial cholesterol regulates Abeta neurotoxicity and AD pathology. Isolated mitochondria from brain or cortical neurons of transgenic mice overexpressing SREBP-2 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 2) or NPC1 (Niemann-Pick type C1) knock-out mice exhibited mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) depletion and increased susceptibility to Abeta1-42-induced oxidative stress and release of apoptogenic proteins. Similar findings were observed in pharmacologically GSH-restricted rat brain mitochondria, while selective mGSH depletion sensitized human neuronal and glial cell lines to Abeta1-42-mediated cell death. Intracerebroventricular human Abeta delivery colocalized with mitochondria resulting in oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that were enhanced in Tg-SREBP-2 mice and prevented upon mGSH recovery by GSH ethyl ester coinfusion, with a similar protection observed by intraperitoneal administration of GSH ethyl ester. Finally, APP/PS1 (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1) mice, a transgenic AD mouse model, exhibited mitochondrial cholesterol loading and mGSH depletion. Thus, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation emerges as a novel pathogenic factor in AD by modulating Abeta toxicity via mGSH regulation; strategies boosting the particular pool of mGSH may be of relevance to slow down disease progression.
SourceAvailable from: John K Young[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecules involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is still uncertain why the hippocampus is the focus of this pathology, since these molecules (amyloid precursor protein, beta secretase, apolipoprotein E) are not more abundant within the hippocampus than in other, undamaged brain areas. Several unique features of the hippocampus may make it more vulnerable to this age-related pathology. These include 1) a specialized metabolism that enhances damaging effects of oxidative stress, 2) a capacity for neurogenesis, and 3) specializations in mitochondrial and metal homeostasis. The thesis of this paper is that an unusual subset of hippocampal astrocytes makes a fundamental contribution to all three of these hippocampal features and allows different and seemingly conflicting risk factors for AD to be viewed in a unified manner. These astrocytes participate in neurogenesis, produce fatty acid binding protein 7, unlike most astrocytes in the mature brain, and undergo an age-related mitochondrial degeneration. Degeneration of astrocyte mitochondria appears due to oxidative stress arising from fatty acid metabolism. This mitochondrial degeneration produces intracellular deposits of iron and copper, metals that have been shown to harmfully interact with cleavage products of amyloid precursor protein. Pharmacological and dietary manipulations that protect these astrocytes from age-related oxidative stress may prove to be useful strategies in combatting the progression of AD.
Article: Glutathione and mitochondria[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer's disease.Frontiers in Pharmacology 07/2014; 5:151. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00151
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative and nitrosative stress (ONS) contributes to the pathogenesis of most brain maladies, and the magnitude of ONS is related to the ability of cellular antioxidants to neutralize the accumulating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). While the major ROS/RNS scavengers and regenerators of bio-oxidized molecules: superoxide dysmutases (SODs), glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) are distributed in all cellular compartments. This review specifically focuses on the role of the systems operating in mitochondria. There is a growing consensus that the mitochondrial SOD isoform - SOD2 and GSH are critical for the cellular antioxidant defense. Variable changes of the expression or activities of one or more of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems have been documented in the brains derived from human patients and/or in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), cerebral ischemia, toxic brain cell damage associated with overexposure to mercury or excitotoxins, or hepatic encephalopathy. In many cases, ambiguity of the responses of the different antioxidant systems in one and the same disease need to be more conclusively evaluated before the balance of the changes in viewed as beneficial or detrimental. Modulation of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems may in the future become a target of antioxidant therapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neurochemistry International 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2014.12.012 · 2.65 Impact Factor