Comparison of three methods for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to 11 antimicrobial drugs.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the BACTEC(TM) MGIT(TM) 960/MGIT Para TB (MGIT) system for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), a pathogen implicated in some forms of Crohn's disease.
MICs of 11 drugs for 10 MAP strains were determined using the MGIT system, the BACTEC(TM)460TB system (BACTEC) and conventional agar dilution methods.
MICs determined by MGIT methods showed 80%-100% agreement (+/-1 log(2) dilution) with those determined by the BACTEC and agar dilution methods for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, azithromycin and clofazimine. The MGIT and BACTEC methods showed 70%, 80% and 90% agreement (+/-1 log(2) dilution) for MICs of ethambutol, rifabutin and rifampicin; agreement for all drugs increased to 100% at 2 log(2) dilution differences. For clarithromycin, the MGIT method had greater agreement with the agar dilution method (70% at the same dilution) than the BACTEC method (60% at +/-1 log(2) dilution); agreement increased to 100% at +/-2 log(2) dilutions in both cases. The MGIT and agar dilution methods agreed 60% and 100% for amikacin MICs at +/-1 log(2) dilution and +/-2 log(2) dilutions, respectively. By all methods MICs were higher than achievable serum concentrations for isoniazid and dapsone. There was 100% agreement between all three methods for azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin, and 80% agreement for rifampicin using published MIC thresholds available for M. avium complex strains.
This study shows that the MGIT system can be used for rapid and reliable drug susceptibility testing of MAP.
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ABSTRACT: Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a widespread and costly disease. This consensus statement will summarize recommendations regarding diagnosis, control, and treatment of Johne's disease in cattle and other species. Each section of recommendations is followed by a statement that subjectively characterizes the strength of the supporting evidence. The role played by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in the pathogenesis has been a matter of controversy for many years. This statement concludes with an assessment of the evidence in favor of MAP as a potential zoonotic pathogen.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The development of novel antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is time-consuming and expensive. Multiple immune modulators, immune suppressants, anti-inflammatories, and growth enhancers, and vitamins A and D, inhibit Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in culture. We studied the culture inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by these agents. Methods: Biosafety level two M. tuberculosis complex (ATCC 19015 and ATCC 25177) was studied in radiometric Bactec or MGIT culture. Agents evaluated included clofazimine, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine A, rapamycin, tacrolimus, monensin, and vitamins A and D. Results: All the agents mentioned above caused dose-dependent inhibition of the M. tuberculosis complex. There was no inhibition by the anti-inflammatory 5-aminosalicylic acid, which causes bacteriostatic inhibition of MAP. Conclusions: We conclude that, at a minimum, studies with virulent M. tuberculosis are indicated with the agents mentioned above, as well as with the thioamide 5-propothiouricil, which has previously been shown to inhibit the M. tuberculosis complex in culture. Our data additionally emphasize the importance of vitamins A and D in treating mycobacterial diseases. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.International Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 26. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic disease affecting ruminants and other species caused by the pathogenic mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP has developed a multitude of mechanisms to persist within the host, and these in turn are counteracted by the host through various immune pathways. Identifying and characterising the different strategies employed by MAP to alter the host immune system in its favour, and thereby persist intracellularly, could hold the key to developing strategies to fight this disease. In this study we analysed a subset of bovine microarray data derived from early time points after experimental infection with MAP. A specifically developed integrated approach was used to identify and validate host genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis (24DHCR, LDLR, SCD-1), calcium homeostasis and anti-bacterial defence mechanisms, (CD38, GIMAP6) which were downregulated in response to MAP exposure. A trend for upregulation of granulysin gene expression in MAP-exposed cattle in comparison to unexposed cattle was also observed. From these analyses, a model of potential pathogen-host interactions involving these novel pathways was developed which indicates an important role for host lipids in mycobacterial survival and persistence.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 08/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor