Article

Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function.

Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.38). 07/2009; 10(6):410-22. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2648
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prefrontal cortex (PFC) - the most evolved brain region - subserves our highest-order cognitive abilities. However, it is also the brain region that is most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress exposure. Even quite mild acute uncontrollable stress can cause a rapid and dramatic loss of prefrontal cognitive abilities, and more prolonged stress exposure causes architectural changes in prefrontal dendrites. Recent research has begun to reveal the intracellular signalling pathways that mediate the effects of stress on the PFC. This research has provided clues as to why genetic or environmental insults that disinhibit stress signalling pathways can lead to symptoms of profound prefrontal cortical dysfunction in mental illness.

4 Followers
 · 
139 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While substantial scholarly attention has been paid to the beneficial consequences of transformational leadership and the conditions in which this leadership style is most effective, there is a remarkable shortage of research on the contextual antecedents of transformational leadership behavior itself. To address this gap, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which we tested the relationship between task complexity and the emergence of transformational leadership behavior. In this experiment, 111 participants were divided in groups of three (comprising one leader and two subordinates), and were instructed to solve three decision-making tasks with varying levels of task complexity. Results indicated that task complexity was negatively related to transformational leadership behavior, and that this relationship was partially mediated by the leader's state core self-evaluations. In other words, when leaders encounter tasks that are overwhelmingly complex, they act in less transformational ways because they momentarily lack the psychological resources to do so. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
    The Leadership Quarterly 01/2015; · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric disorders profoundly impair many aspects of decision making. Poor choices have negative consequences in the moment and make it very hard to navigate complex social environments. Computational neuroscience provides normative, neurobiologically informed descriptions of the components of decision making that serve as a platform for a principled exploration of dysfunctions. Here, we identify and discuss three classes of failure modes arising in these formalisms. They stem from abnormalities in the framing of problems or tasks, from the mechanisms of cognition used to solve the tasks, or from the historical data available from the environment.
    05/2015; 3(3):400-421. DOI:10.1177/2167702614562040
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 04/2015; 9:96. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00096 · 4.16 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
2 Downloads
Available from