Estimation of children's radiation dose from cardiac catheterisations, performed for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease using TLD dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation
ABSTRACT Entrance surface radiation doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters for 98 children who were referred to a cardiology department for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease. Additionally, all the radiographic parameters were recorded and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the estimation of entrance surface dose to effective dose conversion factors, in order to further calculate the effective dose for each child. For diagnostic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.16 to 14.44 mSv, with average 3.71 mSv, and for therapeutic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.38 to 25.01 mSv, with average value 5 mSv. Effective doses were estimated for diagnostic procedures and interventional procedures performed for the treatment of five different heart diseases: (a) atrial septal defect (ASD), (b) ventricular septal defect (VSD), (c) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), (d) aorta coarctation and (e) pulmonary stenosis. The high levels of radiation exposure are, however, balanced with the advantages of cardiac catheterisations such as the avoidance of surgical closure and the necessity of shorter or even no hospitalisation.
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ABSTRACT: Fluoroscopically guided minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic cardiovascular procedures constitute an essential component of the contemporary practice in medicine. Such procedures are however associated with radiation exposure and its attendant hazards. Given the exponential increase in both the type and number of various cardiovascular procedures over the past few decades, radiation exposure has become a critical parameter mandating periodic evaluation. Although existent data indicate variable but nominal radiation doses associated with cardiovascular interventions, the radiation risk may be significant in certain patient populations and the operators who perform numerous procedures annually. Awareness regarding radiation doses and exposure delivered to both patients as well as operators during interventional procedures is therefore imperative. In this article, we review the current literature regarding radiation exposure, its potential hazards, and the ways to reduce the radiation dose in the current practice of cardiovascular medicine.Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports 06/2011; 4(3). DOI:10.1007/s12410-011-9077-5
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ABSTRACT: A detailed preoperative evaluation of coronary anatomy is mandatory before surgical intervention for tetralogy of Fallot. In pediatric patients, the preoperative evaluation of coronary anatomy has relied classically on conventional angiographic analysis and, more recently, on echocardiographic analysis, which have well-known limitations and complications. Recent technological improvements allow the use of multislice computed tomographic analysis to evaluate coronary artery anatomy in very young children, even those with high heart rates. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the accuracy of preoperative dual-source computed tomographic analysis in detecting coronary artery abnormalities by using surgical findings as the reference standard. We prospectively evaluated 100 patients with tetralogy of Fallot before surgical intervention between November 2006 and September 2009 by using dual-source computed tomographic analysis with either retrospective, electrocardiographically gated, helical computed tomographic analysis or prospective, electrocardiographically triggered, sequential computed tomographic acquisition. The patients had a median age of 6.8 months (range, 1.2 months-6.8 years) and a median weight of 7.9 kg (range, 3-30 kg). Compared with surgical findings, dual-source computed tomographic analysis had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting coronary artery abnormalities. Major coronary artery abnormalities were found in 7 (7%) patients. The radiation dose was low. Dual-source computed tomographic analysis is an accurate and noninvasive tool for delineating coronary artery anatomy before surgical intervention in children with tetralogy of Fallot. Dual-source computed tomographic analysis might deserve to be used routinely instead of angiographic analysis and in combination with echocardiographic analysis for the preoperative assessment of patients with tetralogy of Fallot.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 02/2011; 142(1):120-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.11.016 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interventional closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) with a transcatheter device is the preferred strategy in children and adults. This procedure has been proven in numerous studies, but X-ray and contrast agent exposure is still a major side effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the interventional closure of ASDs is possible and safe if it is guided by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) alone. We retrospectively selected and studied pediatric and adult patients with interventional closure of ASDs at the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (DHZB) without fluoroscopy between 1999 and 2010. We included 330 out of 1,605 patients; 254 had an ASD II, 30 a PFO and 46 multiperforated atrial septum. Median age was 8.92 (0.96-76.3) years and median body weight 32.6 (8.3-156) kg. Median stretched defect size was 13 (5-29) mm. Median procedure time was 50 (20-170) min. Closure was performed in the majority of patients with the Amplatzer(®) septal occluder or Amplatzer(®) PFO occluder. The procedure succeeded in 98.2 % of cases and closure rate was 94.9 % after 48 h. Complication rate was low and procedure time was similar to that necessary with studies using fluoroscopy. Interventional closure of ASDs is safe and effective if guided with TEE alone. The results can compete with those with the use of fluoroscopy. TEE-guided closure of ASD should be considered in more catheter laboratories to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure for the patient and the examiner.Clinical Research in Cardiology 03/2012; 101(9):691-700. DOI:10.1007/s00392-012-0445-1 · 4.56 Impact Factor