Estimation of children's radiation dose from cardiac catheterisations, performed for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease using TLD dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation.
ABSTRACT Entrance surface radiation doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters for 98 children who were referred to a cardiology department for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease. Additionally, all the radiographic parameters were recorded and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the estimation of entrance surface dose to effective dose conversion factors, in order to further calculate the effective dose for each child. For diagnostic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.16 to 14.44 mSv, with average 3.71 mSv, and for therapeutic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.38 to 25.01 mSv, with average value 5 mSv. Effective doses were estimated for diagnostic procedures and interventional procedures performed for the treatment of five different heart diseases: (a) atrial septal defect (ASD), (b) ventricular septal defect (VSD), (c) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), (d) aorta coarctation and (e) pulmonary stenosis. The high levels of radiation exposure are, however, balanced with the advantages of cardiac catheterisations such as the avoidance of surgical closure and the necessity of shorter or even no hospitalisation.
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ABSTRACT: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a common congenital heart disease in pediatric patients, and the new trend of catheterization therapy is still associated with some potential risks and complications. Compared with surgical closure, the clinical effect of catheterization therapy in pediatric PDA patients requires meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Science Citation Index, Web of Science, and the Chinese Biomedicine literature database was conducted. Eligible studies included controlled trials of pediatric PDA patients receiving catheterization therapy vs surgical closure. Relative risks (RRs), standard mean differences, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed with the I(2) test. Seven studies with a total of 810 patients met the inclusion criteria. Catheterization therapy neither significantly increased the primary success rate (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03, P = 0.16) nor reduced the total postprocedure complications (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.44-1.25, P = 0.26) and blood transfusion (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.16-7.67, P = 0.93). Catheterization was associated with a statistically significant increase in residual shunts (RR: 5.19, 95% CI: 1.41-19.20, P = 0.01) and reduction in length of hospital stay (standard mean difference: -1.66, 95% CI: -2.65 to -0.67, P = 0.001). Catheterization therapy in pediatric PDA patients did not show a significant advantage in primary success rate, total complications, or blood transfusion, but it was associated with increase in residual shunts and reduction in length of hospital stay.Clinical Cardiology 01/2014; 37(3). · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure during pediatric catheterization is significant. We sought to describe radiation exposure and the effectiveness of radiation safety protocols in reducing exposure during catheter ablations with electrophysiology studies in children and patients with congenital heart disease. We additionally sought to identify at-risk patients. We retrospectively reviewed all interventional electrophysiology procedures performed from April 2009 to September 2011 (6 months preceding intervention, 12 months following implementation of initial radiation safety protocol, and 8 months following implementation of modified protocol). The protocols consisted of low pulse rate fluoroscopy settings, operator notification of skin entrance dose every 1,000 mGy, adjusting cameras by >5 at every 1,000 mGy, and appropriate collimation. The cohort consisted of 291 patients (70 pre-intervention, 137 after initial protocol implementation, 84 after modified protocol implementation) at a median age of 14.9 years with congenital heart disease present in 11 %. Diagnoses included atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (25 %), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (61 %), atrial tachycardias (12 %), and ventricular tachycardia (2 %). There were no differences between groups based on patient, arrhythmia, and procedural characteristics. Following implementation of the protocols, there were significant reductions in all measures of radiation exposure: fluoroscopy time (17.8 %), dose area product (80.2 %), skin entry dose (81.0 %), and effective dose (76.9 %), p = 0.0001. Independent predictors of increased radiation exposure included larger patient weight, longer fluoroscopy time, and lack of radiation safety protocol. Implementation of a radiation safety protocol for pediatric and congenital catheter ablations can drastically reduce radiation exposure to patients without affecting procedural success.Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014; 35(7). · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures can be responsible for relatively high radiation doses compared to conventional radiology especially for young patients. The aim of this study was to assess current exposure levels in a French reference centre of pediatric IC. Dosimetric data including dose area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine frame (NF) were analysed taking into account patient weight. Doses to the lungs, esophagus, breast and thyroid were evaluated using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Finally, effective doses (E) were calculated using DAP and conversion factors calculated with PCXMC 2.0 software. 801 IC procedures performed between 2010 and 2011 were analysed. Large variations were observed for DAP, FT and NF values for a given procedure and a given weight group. The assessment of organ doses showed high levels of dose to the lungs and esophagus especially in new-born babies. For diagnostic procedures, E varied from 0.3 to 23 mSv with a mean value of 4.8 mSv and for therapeutic procedures, values ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 mSv with a mean value of 7.3 mSv. The highest values were recorded for angioplasty procedures (mean 13 mSv, range 0.6-48.4 mSv). The increasing use of IC in pediatric population stresses the need of setting up reference levels and keeping doses to children as low as possible.Pediatric Cardiology 03/2014; 35(6). · 1.55 Impact Factor