Attitudes and Beliefs About Secondhand Smoke and Smoke-Free Policies in Four Countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2009; 11(6):642-9. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntp063
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This paper describes the varying levels of smoking policies in nationally representative samples of smokers in four countries and examines how these policies are associated with changes in attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke over time.
We report data on 5,788 respondents to Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey who were employed at the time of the survey. A cohort of these respondents was followed up with two additional survey waves approximately 12 months apart. Respondents' attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke as well as self-reported policies in their workplace and in bars and restaurants in their community were assessed at all waves.
The level of comprehensive smoke-free policies in workplaces, restaurants, and bars increased over the study period for all countries combined and was highest in Canada (30%) and lowest in the United Kingdom (0%) in 2004. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, stronger secondhand smoke policies were associated with more favorable attitudes and support for comprehensive regulations. The associations were the strongest for smokers who reported comprehensive policies in restaurants, bars, and their workplace for all three survey waves.
Comprehensive smoke-free policies are increasing over time, and stronger policies and the public education opportunities surrounding their passage are associated with more favorable attitudes toward secondhand smoke regulations. The implication for policy makers is that, although the initial debate over smoke-free policies may be tumultuous, once people understand the rationale for implementing smoke-free policies and experience their benefits, public support increases even among smokers, and compliance with smoke-free regulations increases over time.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark J Travers, Aug 24, 2015
  • Source
    • "Many studies have examined the impact of SHS policies on smoking cessation in the workplace [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] and the home [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]. In addition, researchers have investigated attitudes and public support following implementation of SHS policies [34] [35] [36] [37]. A body of literature also exists on the connection between smoking restrictions and the denormalization of smoking— the process wherein smoking has gradually been redefined as socially unacceptable [38] [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and management in the context of smoking location restrictions, for nonsmokers, former, and current smokers. A purposive sample of 47 low income and non-low-income men and women of varied smoking statuses was recruited to participate in a telephone interview or a focus group. Amidst general approval of increased restrictions there were gendered patterns of SHS exposure and management, and effects of SHS policies that reflect power, control, and social roles that need to be considered as policies are developed, implemented and monitored. The experience of smoking restrictions and the management of SHS is influenced by the social context (relationship with a partner, family member, or stranger), the space of exposure (public or private, worksite), the social location of individuals involved (gender, income), and differential tolerance to SHS. This confluence of factors creates differing unintended and unexpected consequences to the social and physical situations of male and female smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers. These factors deserve further study, in the interests of informing the development of future interventions and policies restricting SHS.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 04/2012; 2012:907832. DOI:10.1155/2012/907832
  • Source
    • "Although many studies have identified strong support for smoke-free policy implementation in public areas (Borland et al., 2006; Hyland et al., 2009), literature assessing support for policy implementation in personal living areas is limited, perhaps because the topic bridges the often controversial boundary between public and private space (Ritchie, Amos, Phillips, Cunningham-Burley, & Martin, 2009). Nonetheless, based upon health concerns, a convincing argument can be made in support of the implementation of smoke-free policies in homes, especially in multiunit housing (MUH). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes significant disease and death. A person's home represents a prominent source of SHS, and the potential for exposure is elevated among those who live in close proximity to smokers in multiunit housing (MUH). This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of SHS exposure and smoke-free policy support among MUH residents. Data were obtained from 5,936 MUH residents who participated in the New York State Adult Tobacco Survey between May 2007 and May 2009. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the prevalence of smoke-free home policies, SHS incursions, and support for smoke-free policies. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of these measures while adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, education, region, children in household, and housing type. A total of 73.1% of respondents reported a personal smoke-free home policy in their home. Among these individuals, 46.2% indicated that SHS has ever entered their home in the past year, while 9.2% reported daily incursions. Overall, a majority of respondents (55.6%) support a policy that bans smoking in all areas of their building, including residential units; support was significantly higher among ethnic minorities and individuals who reside with children. Nearly half of New York MUH residents with a smoke-free home policy have experienced a SHS incursion in their home. Since a majority of MUH residents support smoke-free policies and nearly three quarters already prohibit smoking in their home, opportunities exist for initiatives to promote smoke-free building policies.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 06/2010; 12(6):598-605. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntq053 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study provides information about secondhand smoke exposure across the St. Louis metro area and perceptions and attitudes about tobacco and health within the local hospitality industry. Results from this study support the need for passage and implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws throughout Missouri, particularly in St. Louis City and County where efforts to pass comprehensive smoke-free laws have been unsuccessful.
    Missouri medicine 109(6):482-8.
Show more