Epigenetic allele silencing and variable penetrance of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.
ABSTRACT Tissue-specific monoallelic silencing of the RYR1 gene has been proposed as an explanation for variable penetrance of dominant RYR1 mutations in malignant hyperthermia (MH). We examined the hypothesis that monoallelic silencing could explain the inheritance of an MH discordant phenotype in some instances.
We analysed parent-offspring transmission data from MH kindreds to assess whether there was any deviation from the expected autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance pattern. We also evaluated informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in a cohort of unrelated MH patients using genomic DNA (gDNA, prepared from leucocytes) and coding DNA (cDNA, prepared from skeletal muscle). Finally, we examined the segregation of specific mutations at the gDNA and cDNA level within MH families where positive RYR1 gDNA genotype/normal MH phenotype discordance had been observed.
In 2113 transmissions from affected parents, there was a consistent parent-of-origin effect (P<0.001) with affected fathers having fewer affected daughters (20%, 95% CI 17-22%) than affected sons (25%, 95% CI 23-26%) or unaffected daughters (27%, 95% CI 25-30%). No discrepancies were observed between the RYR1 SNP genotypes recorded at the gDNA and cDNA levels. In 14 MH negative individuals from 11 discordant families, the familial mutation was detected in skeletal muscle cDNA in all cases.
Epigenetic allele silencing may play a role in the inheritance of MH susceptibility, but this is unlikely to involve silencing of RYR1.
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a dominantly inherited skeletal muscle disorder that can cause a fatal hypermetabolic reaction to general anaesthetics. The primary locus of MH (MHS1 locus) in humans is linked to chromosome 19q13.1, the position of the gene encoding the ryanodine receptor skeletal muscle calcium release channel (RyR1). In this study, an inexpensive allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay was designed that allowed the relative quantification of the two RyR1 transcripts in heterozygous samples found to be susceptible to MH (MHS). Allele-specific differences in RyR1 expression levels can provide insight into the observed variable penetrance and variations in MH phenotypes between individuals. The presence/absence of the H4833Y mutation in RYR1 transcripts was employed as a marker that allowed discrimination between the two alleles. In four skeletal muscle samples and two lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from different MHS patients, the wild type allele was found to be expressed at higher levels than the mutant RyR1 allele. For both LCLs, the ratios between the wild type and mutant RYR1 alleles did not change after different incubation times with actinomycin D. This suggests that there are no allele-specific differences in RyR1 mRNA stability, at least in these cells. The data presented here revealed for the first time allele-specific differences in RYR1 mRNA expression levels in heterozygous MHS samples, and can at least in part contribute to the observed variable penetrance and variations in MH clinical phenotypes.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2010; 5:10. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an autosomal dominant pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mutations of the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene account for most cases, with some studies claiming up to 86% of mutations in this locus. However, RYR1 gene is large and variants are common even in the normal population. We examined 54 families with MH susceptibility and 21 diagnosed with equivocal MH. Thirty-five were selected for an anesthetic reaction, whereas the remainder for hyperCKemia. In these, we studied all 106 exons of the RYR1 gene. When no mutation was found, we also screened: sodium channel voltage-gated, type IV alpha subunit (SCN4A), calcium channel voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit (CACNA1S), and L-type voltage-gated calcium channel alpha 2/delta-subunit (CACNL2A). Twenty-nine different RYR1 mutations were discovered in 40 families. Three other MH genes were tested in negative cases. Fourteen RYR1 amino acid changes were novel, of which 12 were located outside the mutational 'hot spots'. In two families, the known mutation p.R3903Q was also observed in malignant hyperthermia-nonsusceptible (MHN) individuals. Unexpectedly, four changes were also found in the same family and two in another. Our study confirms that MH is genetically heterogeneous and that a consistent number of cases are not due to RYR1 mutations. The discordance between in vitro contracture test status and the presence of a proven causative RYR1 mutation suggests that the penetrance may vary due to as yet unknown factors.Clinical Genetics 05/2011; 79(5):438-47. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For many inherited diseases, the same mutation is not always expressed in all persons who carry it, moreover, when the mutation is expressed, it is not always expressed in the same way. These findings are the basis for the concepts of penetrance and expressivity. Understanding the factors that control penetrance of disease genes will provide insight into the fundamental disease processes and will help in genetic counselling. With the advancement of molecular genetics over the last few years, some of the underlying mechanisms of reduced penetrance have been elucidated. These include, mutation type, allelic variations in gene expression, epigenetic factors, gene-environment interplay, influence of age and sex, allele dosage, oligogenic and digenic inheritance mutations, modifier genes, copy number variations as well as the influence of additional gene variants and the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The aim of this review is to clarify factors affecting gene penetrance as well as some of the underlying molecular mechanisms in some genetic disorders.Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 01/2014;