Epigenetic allele silencing and variable penetrance of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.
ABSTRACT Tissue-specific monoallelic silencing of the RYR1 gene has been proposed as an explanation for variable penetrance of dominant RYR1 mutations in malignant hyperthermia (MH). We examined the hypothesis that monoallelic silencing could explain the inheritance of an MH discordant phenotype in some instances.
We analysed parent-offspring transmission data from MH kindreds to assess whether there was any deviation from the expected autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance pattern. We also evaluated informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in a cohort of unrelated MH patients using genomic DNA (gDNA, prepared from leucocytes) and coding DNA (cDNA, prepared from skeletal muscle). Finally, we examined the segregation of specific mutations at the gDNA and cDNA level within MH families where positive RYR1 gDNA genotype/normal MH phenotype discordance had been observed.
In 2113 transmissions from affected parents, there was a consistent parent-of-origin effect (P<0.001) with affected fathers having fewer affected daughters (20%, 95% CI 17-22%) than affected sons (25%, 95% CI 23-26%) or unaffected daughters (27%, 95% CI 25-30%). No discrepancies were observed between the RYR1 SNP genotypes recorded at the gDNA and cDNA levels. In 14 MH negative individuals from 11 discordant families, the familial mutation was detected in skeletal muscle cDNA in all cases.
Epigenetic allele silencing may play a role in the inheritance of MH susceptibility, but this is unlikely to involve silencing of RYR1.
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ABSTRACT: The RYR1 gene encodes the skeletal muscle isoform ryanodine receptor and is fundamental to the process of excitation-contraction coupling and skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis. Mapping to chromosome 19q13.2, the gene comprises 106 exons and encodes a protein of 5,038 amino acids. Mutations in the gene have been found in association with several diseases: the pharmacogenetic disorder, malignant hyperthermia (MH); and three congenital myopathies, including central core disease (CCD), multiminicore disease (MmD), and in an isolated case of a congenital myopathy characterized on histology by cores and rods. The majority of gene mutations reported are missense changes identified in cases of MH and CCD. In vitro analysis has confirmed that alteration of normal calcium homeostasis is a functional consequence of some of these changes. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies performed using data from MH and CCD patients have also suggested that mutations may be associated with a range of disease severity phenotypes. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of RYR1 mutations reported in association with MH and CCD and the present viewpoint on the use of mutation data to aid clinical diagnosis of these conditions.Human Mutation 11/2006; 27(10):977-89. · 5.21 Impact Factor
- Neuromuscular Disorders 09/2002; 12(6):588-95. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a source of genetic variation, which can mimic recessive mutations by creating transcriptional haploinsufficiency. Germline epimutations and genomic imprinting are typical examples, although their existence can be difficult to reveal. Genomic imprinting can be tissue specific, with biallelic expression in some tissues and monoallelic expression in others or with polymorphic expression in the general population. Mutations in the skeletal-muscle ryanodine-receptor gene (RYR1) are associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and the congenital myopathies central core disease and multiminicore disease. RYR1 has never been thought to be affected by epigenetic regulation. However, during the RYR1-mutation analysis of a cohort of patients with recessive core myopathies, we discovered that 6 (55%) of 11 patients had monoallelic RYR1 transcription in skeletal muscle, despite being heterozygous at the genomic level. In families for which parental DNA was available, segregation studies showed that the nonexpressed allele was maternally inherited. Transcription analysis in patients' fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines indicated biallelic expression, which suggests tissue-specific silencing. Transcription analysis of normal human fetal tissues showed that RYR1 was monoallelically expressed in skeletal and smooth muscles, brain, and eye in 10% of cases. In contrast, 25 normal adult human skeletal-muscle samples displayed only biallelic expression. Finally, the administration of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-deoxycytidine to cultured patient skeletal-muscle myoblasts reactivated the transcription of the silenced allele, which suggests hypermethylation as a mechanism for RYR1 silencing. Our data indicate that RYR1 undergoes polymorphic, tissue-specific, and developmentally regulated allele silencing and that this unveils recessive mutations in patients with core myopathies. Furthermore, our data suggest that imprinting is a likely mechanism for this phenomenon and that similar mechanisms could play a role in human phenotypic heterogeneity.The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2006; 79(5):859-68. · 11.20 Impact Factor