Epigenetic allele silencing and variable penetrance of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.
ABSTRACT Tissue-specific monoallelic silencing of the RYR1 gene has been proposed as an explanation for variable penetrance of dominant RYR1 mutations in malignant hyperthermia (MH). We examined the hypothesis that monoallelic silencing could explain the inheritance of an MH discordant phenotype in some instances.
We analysed parent-offspring transmission data from MH kindreds to assess whether there was any deviation from the expected autosomal dominant Mendelian inheritance pattern. We also evaluated informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in a cohort of unrelated MH patients using genomic DNA (gDNA, prepared from leucocytes) and coding DNA (cDNA, prepared from skeletal muscle). Finally, we examined the segregation of specific mutations at the gDNA and cDNA level within MH families where positive RYR1 gDNA genotype/normal MH phenotype discordance had been observed.
In 2113 transmissions from affected parents, there was a consistent parent-of-origin effect (P<0.001) with affected fathers having fewer affected daughters (20%, 95% CI 17-22%) than affected sons (25%, 95% CI 23-26%) or unaffected daughters (27%, 95% CI 25-30%). No discrepancies were observed between the RYR1 SNP genotypes recorded at the gDNA and cDNA levels. In 14 MH negative individuals from 11 discordant families, the familial mutation was detected in skeletal muscle cDNA in all cases.
Epigenetic allele silencing may play a role in the inheritance of MH susceptibility, but this is unlikely to involve silencing of RYR1.
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ABSTRACT: Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) and stress-induced malignant hyperthermia (MH) events are syndromes that primarily afflict military recruits in basic training and athletes. Events similar to those occurring in ER and in stress-induced MH events are triggered after exposure to anesthetic agents in MH-susceptible (MHS) patients. MH is an autosomal dominant hypermetabolic condition that occurs in genetically predisposed subjects during general anesthesia, induced by commonly used volatile anesthetics and/or the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Triggering agents cause an altered intracellular calcium regulation. Mutations in gene have been found in about 70% of MH families. The gene encodes the skeletal muscle calcium release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, commonly known as ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1). The present work reviews the documented cases of ER or of stress-induced MH events in which sequence variations, associated or possibly associated to MHS status, have been identified.The Scientific World Journal 02/2013; 2013:531465. DOI:10.1155/2013/531465 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle, characterised by an elevated calcium release from the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) plays an essential role in excitation-contraction coupling and calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. This study focuses on the gene CACNA1S which encodes the alpha1 subunit of the DHPR, in order to establish whether CACNA1S plays a major role in MH susceptibility in the UK. We investigate the CACNA1S locus in detail in 50 independent MH patients, the largest study to date, to identify novel variants that may predispose to disease and also to characterise the haplotype structure across CACNA1S. We present CACNA1S cDNA sequencing data from 50 MH patients in whom RYR1 mutations have been excluded, and subsequent mutation screening analysis. Furthermore we present haplotype analysis of unphased CACNA1S SNPs to (1) assess CACNA1S haplotype frequency differences between susceptible MH cases and a European control group and (2) analyse population-based association via clustering of CACNA1S haplotypes based on disease risk. The study identified a single potentially pathogenic change in CACNA1S (p.Arg174Trp), and highlights that the haplotype structure across CACNA1S is diverse, with a high degree of variability.BMC Medical Genetics 10/2009; 10(1):104. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-10-104 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a dominantly inherited skeletal muscle disorder that can cause a fatal hypermetabolic reaction to general anaesthetics. The primary locus of MH (MHS1 locus) in humans is linked to chromosome 19q13.1, the position of the gene encoding the ryanodine receptor skeletal muscle calcium release channel (RyR1). In this study, an inexpensive allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) assay was designed that allowed the relative quantification of the two RyR1 transcripts in heterozygous samples found to be susceptible to MH (MHS). Allele-specific differences in RyR1 expression levels can provide insight into the observed variable penetrance and variations in MH phenotypes between individuals. The presence/absence of the H4833Y mutation in RYR1 transcripts was employed as a marker that allowed discrimination between the two alleles. In four skeletal muscle samples and two lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from different MHS patients, the wild type allele was found to be expressed at higher levels than the mutant RyR1 allele. For both LCLs, the ratios between the wild type and mutant RYR1 alleles did not change after different incubation times with actinomycin D. This suggests that there are no allele-specific differences in RyR1 mRNA stability, at least in these cells. The data presented here revealed for the first time allele-specific differences in RYR1 mRNA expression levels in heterozygous MHS samples, and can at least in part contribute to the observed variable penetrance and variations in MH clinical phenotypes.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 05/2010; 5:10. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-5-10 · 3.96 Impact Factor