Colonic diverticular disease

Department of Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Clinical evidence 02/2007; 2007.
Source: PubMed


Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) affect over 5% of adults aged 40 years and older, but only 10-25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of: treatments for uncomplicated diverticular disease; treatments to prevent complications; and treatments for acute diverticulitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to July 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 13 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodics, bran, elective surgery, increasing fibre intake, ispaghula husk, lactulose, medical treatment, mesalazine, methylcellulose, rifaximin, surgery.

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Available from: David J Humes, Jun 26, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: EVIDENCE-BASED ANSWER: A high-fiber diet may help; available evidence does not support other interventions. A high-fiber diet is often prescribed after recovery from acute diverticulitis, based on extrapolation from epidemiologic data showing an association between low-fiber diets and diverticulosis. No direct evidence establishes a role for fiber in preventing recurrent diverticulitis, however. No evidence supports the common advice to avoid nuts and seeds to prevent diverticulitis. Eating nuts, corn, and popcorn does not increase the risk; in fact, nuts and popcorn may have a protective effect. There is not enough evidence to recommend the anti-inflammatory drug mesalamine or a polybacterial lysate for immunostimulation. Retrospective data do not support routine prophylactic colectomy after 1 or 2 episodes of acute diverticulitis.
    The Journal of family practice 08/2009; 58(7):381-2. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute diverticulitis, defined as acute inflammation associated with a colonic diverticulum, is a common emergency presentation managed by both surgeons and physicians. There have been advances in both the medical and the surgical treatments offered to patients in recent years. To review the current understanding of the aetiology and treatment of acute diverticulitis. A search of PubMed and Medline databases was performed to identify articles relevant to the aetiology, pathogenesis and management of acute diverticulitis. There are 75 hospital admissions per year for acute diverticulitis per 100 000 of the population in the United States. Recent reports suggest a 26% increase in admissions over a 7-year period. Factors predisposing to the development of acute diverticulitis include obesity, smoking, diet, lack of physical activity and medication use such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The condition is associated with a low mortality of about 1% following medical therapy, rising to 4% in-hospital mortality in those requiring surgery. There is limited evidence on the efficacy of individual antibiotic regimens, and antibiotic treatment may not be required in all patients. The rates of recurrence reported for patients with acute diverticulitis following medical management vary from 13% to 36%. The surgical management of those patients who fail medical treatment has moved towards a laparoscopic nonresectional approach; however, the evidence supporting this is limited. Further high-quality randomised controlled trials are required of both medical and surgical treatments in patients with acute diverticulitis, if management is to be evidence-based.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/2014; 39(4). DOI:10.1111/apt.12596 · 5.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neuro-transmission impairment could be associated to motility changes observed in patients with diverticular disease. Therefore, the objective was to characterize the inhibitory neuro-muscular transmission and gene expression changes of the enteric inhibitory pathways in patients with diverticulosis (DS).Methods Circular muscle strips from sigmoid colon of patients with DS and controls were studied using the organ bath technique to evaluate spontaneous contractility and enteric motor neurons stimulated by electrical field and qRT-PCR to assess the expression of nNOS, iNOS, P2Y1R and PGP9.5.Key ResultsPatients with DS presented decreased spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRC) that were significantly enhanced after incubation with L-NNA (1 mM) and TTX (1 μM), and unaffected by the P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 (1 μM). Stimulation on enteric motor neurons caused an increased duration of the latency of OFF-contractions in DS group (p < 0.001), antagonized by L-NNA and slightly affected by MRS2500 (1 μM). No differences in the IC50 between controls and DS patients were observed on inhibition of SRC for the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the preferential P2Y agonist ADPβS. Moreover, nNOS relative expression was also up-regulated 2.3-fold in the DS group (p < 0.05) whereas there was no significant difference in relative expression of iNOS, P2Y1R and the neuronal marker PGP9.5 between groups.Conclusions & InferencesPatients with DS presented an over-expression of nNOS with increased endogenously NO-mediated responses suggesting enhanced NO-release. Up-regulation in the nitrergic pathway in early stages of the disease might play a role in colonic motor disorders associated to diverticular disease.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 08/2014; 26(10). DOI:10.1111/nmo.12407 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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