Association between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome.
ABSTRACT Metabolic syndrome is a complex medical disorder characterized by visceral fat-type obesity involving hypertension, and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and components of metabolic syndrome (obesity, lipid abnormality, hypertension, and hyperglycemia) in industrial workers of a single company in Tokyo, Japan.
The study subjects consisted of 2478 adult employees (2028 men and 450 women; mean age: 43.3 years). The association between the presence of periodontal pockets and components of metabolic syndrome was investigated cross-sectionally using multiple logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (ORs), and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs).
Body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in patients with periodontal pockets of 4 mm or more. We found that the OR of the presence of periodontal pockets adjusted for age, gender, and smoking habit was 1.8 (96 percent CI = 1.4-2.3) when the subjects with two positive components and without positive component were compared. And it was 2.4 (96 percent CI = 1.7-2.7) when the subjects with three or four positive components and without positive component were compared.
Our findings suggest an association between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome in Japanese workers between the ages of 20 and 60 years.
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ABSTRACT: Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of several physical conditions/diseases that, as a group, increases the risk of mortality resulting from development of T2DM and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). These conditions/diseases include glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. The results from epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontitis, it is therefore important to understand the current status of the association and a possible contribution of periodontitis to MetS. Objective This review will qualitatively analyze published papers on the association of MetS and periodontitis/periodontal disease to clarify the current status of the association and suggest future directions for studies which may unravel the causal relationship between them. Results Of 309 papers related to MetS and periodontitis, 26 are original research papers that investigated the relationship/association between periodontal disease and MetS. Criteria used to assess periodontitis and MetS as well as overall study designs and patient recruitment criteria varied greatly among these studies. Conclusion All these studies demonstrated a positive association between periodontal disease and MetS. However, due to the heterogeneity of criteria to assess periodontitis and MetS and also paucity of longitudinal studies, it is difficult to determine the relative contribution of periodontitis to MetS. Age and the number of positive components of MetS appear to strengthen the relationship, however, incidence of each disease entity increases with aging. Thus, mechanistic studies are also necessary to unravel the inter-relationship between periodontitis and MetS. In this regard, a use of animal models will be helpful as they are more uniform in regards to genetic background and have minimum confounding factors. Finally, development of accurate, quantitative assessment of gingival inflammation are necessary in order to determine the influence of periodontal disease on the development of MetS and its components.Archives of Oral Biology. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Periodontal disease is a mild chronic inflammatory disease with systemic effects, and many studies have indicated an association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between periodontitis and liver biochemical parameters according to alcohol drinking habits through a cross-sectional study based on data from Japanese people in occupational settings. Material and Methods The subjects were 1510 employees (1218 males, 292 females, mean age 50.4 years) who underwent dental and medical checkups in 2012. Associations between the presence of periodontal pockets and serum levels of liver biochemical parameters were assessed. Results Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were higher in subjects with than without periodontal pockets. Multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age, gender, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking habits, and components of metabolic syndrome) with GGT or ALT as the dependent variable revealed that there was a significant association between periodontal pockets and GGT (odds ratio, OR=1.48), but not ALT. Similar associations were observed when an analysis was performed according to the presence or absence of alcohol drinking habits; the OR was higher in subjects without (OR=1.84) than with drinking habits (OR=1.41). Conclusions The presence of periodontal pockets was associated with serum levels of GGT, a liver biochemical parameter, in Japanese adults with no drinking habit, suggesting that periodontal disease is associated with liver function, independent of alcohol ingestion.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2014; 20:2109-2116. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to characterize the association between metabolic syndrome (Metsyn) and periodontitis in women, for which there is limited evidence. Methods: Cross-sectional associations between Metsyn and periodontitis were examined in 657 postmenopausal women age 50-79 years enrolled in a periodontal disease study ancillary to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Whole mouth measures of alveolar crestal height (ACH), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival bleeding and supragingival plaque, and measures to define Metsyn using National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were from a clinical examination. Study outcomes were defined as: (1) mean ACH ≥3mm, or 2 sites ≥5mm, or tooth loss to periodontitis; (2) ≥2 sites with CAL ≥6mm and ≥1 site with PD ≥5mm; (3) gingival bleeding at ≥50% of sites; and (4) supragingival plaque at ≥50% of sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: In unadjusted analyses, Metsyn (prevalence, 25.6%) was significantly associated with supragingival plaque (OR, 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.50) and nonsignificantly associated with periodontitis defined by ACH (OR, 1.23, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.85) and gingival bleeding (OR, 1.20, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.77). Adjustment for age, smoking and other confounders attenuated observed associations, though supragingival plaque remained significant (OR, 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.16, p = .049). Metsyn was not associated with periodontitis defined by CAL and PD. Conclusions: A consistent association between Metsyn and measures of periodontitis was not seen in this cohort of postmenopausal women. An association between Metsyn and supragingival plaque requires further investigation.Journal of periodontology. 05/2014;