Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?
ABSTRACT The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture enterprise. Finally, the authors suggest a method of producing and collecting Artemia biomass, and of heating a fish larval tank, in an 'ideal' Solar Pond device, profiting from the low investment costs of using a decommissioned salt works.
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ABSTRACT: N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from oily fish protect against death from cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the hypothesis that incorporation of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs into advanced atherosclerotic plaques increases and decreases plaque stability, respectively. We did a randomised controlled trial of patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. We randomly allocated patients control, sunflower oil (n-6), or fish-oil (n-3) capsules until surgery. Primary outcome was plaque morphology indicative of stability or instability, and outcome measures were concentrations of EPA, DHA, and linoleic acid in carotid plaques; plaque morphology; and presence of macrophages in plaques. Analysis was per protocol. 188 patients were enrolled and randomised; 18 withdrew and eight were excluded. Duration of oil treatment was 7-189 days (median 42) and did not differ between groups. The proportions of EPA and DHA were higher in carotid plaque fractions in patients receiving fish oil compared with those receiving control (absolute difference 0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.7], 0.4 [0.1-0.6], and 0.2 [0.1-0.4] g/100 g total fatty acids for EPA; and 0.3 [0.0-0.8], 0.4 [0.1-0.7], and 0.3 [0.1-0.6] g/100 g total fatty acids for DHA; in plaque phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, respectively). Sunflower oil had little effect on the fatty acid composition of lipid fractions. Fewer plaques from patients being treated with fish oil had thin fibrous caps and signs of inflammation and more plaques had thick fibrous caps and no signs of inflammation, compared with plaques in patients in the control and sunflower oil groups (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.24-0.89] and 1.19 [1.02-1.57] vs control; 0.49 [0.23-0.90] and 1.16 [1.01-1.53] vs sunflower oil). The number of macrophages in plaques from patients receiving fish oil was lower than in the other two groups. Carotid plaque morphology and infiltration by macrophages did not differ between control and sunflower oil groups. Atherosclerotic plaques readily incorporate n-3 PUFAs from fish-oil supplementation, inducing changes that can enhance stability of atherosclerotic plaques. By contrast, increased consumption of n-6 PUFAs does not affect carotid plaque fatty-acid composition or stability over the time course studied here. Stability of plaques could explain reductions in non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular events associated with increased n-3 PUFA intake.The Lancet 03/2003; 361(9356):477-85. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies of whether polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil--in particular, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids--lower blood pressure have varied in design and results. We conducted a population-based, randomized, 10-week dietary-supplementation trial in which the effects of 6 g per day of 85 percent eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were compared with those of 6 g per day of corn oil in 156 men and women with previously untreated stable, mild essential hypertension. The mean systolic blood pressure fell by 4.6 mm Hg (P = 0.002), and diastolic pressure by 3.0 mm Hg (P = 0.0002) in the group receiving fish oil; there was no significant change in the group receiving corn oil. The differences between the groups remained significant for both systolic (6.4 mm Hg; P = 0.0025) and diastolic (2.8 mm Hg; P = 0.029) pressure after control for anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. The decreases in blood pressure were larger as concentrations of plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids increased (P = 0.027). Dietary supplementation with fish oil did not change mean blood pressure in the subjects who ate fish three or more times a week as part of their usual diet, or in those who had a base-line concentration of plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids above 175.1 mg per liter. We conclude that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids reduce blood pressure in essential hypertension, depending on increases in plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids.New England Journal of Medicine 04/1990; 322(12):795-801. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During a 4-year period, mass production of Artemia biomass in large ponds was demonstrated. The extensive system, which consisted of 400–1200-m2 ponds, had a daily inflow of fishpond effluent (40 ppt) that fed the Artemia and maintained a salinity range of 90–100 ppt. A steady state of the Artemia population was maintained by a daily introduction of 3–5 million nauplii/1000 m2 of pond and by selective harvest of adults. Using this method, an average of 5 kg/1000 m2/day of biomass was harvested over a period of several months. With the exception of a few cases, gravid females were in the oviparous reproductive cycle. It is suggested that the efficient daily harvesting prevented completion of the reproductive cycle, and therefore, natural recruitment in the ponds did not occur. In addition to biomass production, one pond was used for cyst production and over 2 kg of dry cysts/1000 m2/month was collected. Using artificial diet (soy protein powder) in the ponds allowed bridging over periods of shortage of natural feed. A regime of producing Artemia during the cold season is proposed and some general aspects of biomass and cyst production are discussed.Aquaculture. 01/2002; 213(1):395-400.