A phase II study of flavopiridol (Alvocidib) in combination with docetaxel in refractory, metastatic pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) harbors frequent alterations in p16, resulting in cell cycle dysregulation. A phase I study of docetaxel and flavopiridol, a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, demonstrated encouraging clinical activity in PC. This phase II study was designed to further define the efficacy and toxicity of this regimen in patients with previously treated PC.
Patients with gemcitabine-refractory, metastatic PC were treated with docetaxel 35 mg/m(2) followed by flavopiridol 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Tumor measurements were performed every two cycles. A Simon two-stage design was used to evaluate the primary endpoint of response.
Ten patients were enrolled, and 9 were evaluable for response. No objective responses were observed; however, 3 patients (33%) achieved transient stable disease, with one of these patients achieving a 20% reduction in tumor size. Median survival was 4.2 months, with no patients alive at the time of analysis. Adverse events were significant, with 7 patients (78%) requiring >or=1 dose reduction for transaminitis (11%), grade 4 neutropenia (33%), grade 3 fatigue (44%), and grade 3 diarrhea (22%).
The combination of flavopiridol and docetaxel has minimal activity and significant toxicity in this patient population. These results reflect the challenges of treating patients with PC in a second-line setting where the risk/benefit equation is tightly balanced.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we estimated the response rate, duration of response, and type, severity and reversibility of toxicities in patients with Stage IV adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated with docetaxel. Twenty-one patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer, previously untreated or treated with surgery or radiation alone, were treated with 100 mg/m2 docetaxel as a 1 hr infusion once every 21 days. All the patients were pretreated with dexamethasone and diphenhydramine. Twenty patients were assessable for both response and toxicity. One patient was assessable for toxicity alone. However, all the patients were assessed for survival. The major side effect of the drug was neutropenia, which required a dose reduction to 75 mg/m2 in approximately half of the patients. Nine patients were hospitalized with neutropenic fever. Fluid retention was not a significant problem. One patient had a partial response lasting for 21 weeks and 7 patients had stable disease. The remaining patients had progressive disease. The median survival for all the patients was 5.9 months. Docetaxel as a single agent showed limited activity against adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Since the completion of this study, molecular predictors of in vitro response to docetaxel have been described. Confirmation of the clinical relevance of such predictors in humans could allow for the identification of a subgroup of patients with a higher rate of response to docetaxel.Cancer Investigation 02/2002; 20(4):464-72. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: Pancreatic carcinogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally lethal disease. Research over the last two decades has shown that pancreatic cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease, caused by inherited germline and acquired somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes. Multiple alterations in genes that are important in pancreatic cancer progression have been identified, including tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and genome maintenance genes. Furthermore, the identification of noninvasive precursor lesions of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has led to the formulation of a multi-step progression model of pancreatic cancer and the subsequent identification of early and late genetic alterations culminating in invasive cancer. In addition, an increased understanding of the molecular basis of the disease has facilitated the identification of new drug targets enabling rational drug design. The elucidation of genetic alterations in combination with the development of high-throughput sensitive techniques should lead to the discovery of effective biomarkers for early detection of this malignancy. This review focuses mainly on the current knowledge about the molecular insights of the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.Pancreatology 02/2008; 8(2):110-25. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of all the common gastrointestinal malignancies. Although surgery offers the best chance for survival, it is not appropriate for all cases. The only adjuvant treatment to show promise is chemotherapy. Hence new treatments are urgently sought. We previously reported that adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of p53 (Adp53) and p16(INK4A) (Adp16) significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines and established subcutaneous pancreatic tumours in nude mice (Ghaneh P, et al. Adenovirus mediated transfer of p53 and p16INK4A results in pancreatic cancer regression in vitro and in vivo. Gene Ther 2001; 8: 199-208). In this study we examine whether combining Ad-mediated delivery of p53 or p16(INK4A) with clinically relevant chemotherapeutic drugs has therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer. Four pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated for their sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and gemcitabine and two of these, Suit-2 and Panc-1, were chosen for combination experiments because they showed moderate and poor sensitivity, respectively, to 5-FU and gemcitabine. We found no evidence for enhanced cytotoxicity when either cell line was transduced with Adp53 before or after incubation with chemotherapeutic drugs. In contrast, incubation of Panc-1 cells with either 5-FU or gemcitabine followed by Ad-mediated overexpression of p16(INK4A) resulted in a substantial reduction in cell viability under conditions where the drugs alone had minimal cytotoxicity. Incubation of Suit-2 cells with 5-FU followed by Ad-mediated overexpression of p16(INK4A) also resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability. This, however, was observed only with higher concentrations of 5-FU and viral vector. Cell cycle analysis of Panc-1 cells showed that the combination of cytotoxic drugs and Adp16 resulted in an increase in the sub-G1 population suggesting an increase in apoptosis. Dual labelling of these cells with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) confirmed that the combination of 5-FU and Adp16 resulted in a significant increase in early apoptotic cells (annexin V positive and PI negative) compared with controls. Moreover, overexpression of p16(INK4A) was associated with a reduction in pRb levels in these cells-high levels of pRb have been proposed to contribute to chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. We have shown that the currently used chemotherapeutic drugs for pancreatic adenocarcinoma combined with restoration of p16(INK4A) expression hold promise for the adjuvant treatment of this disease. Importantly, the combination facilitated the use of chemotherapeutic drugs at lower concentrations than would otherwise be effective.The Journal of Gene Medicine 06/2004; 6(5):514-25. · 2.16 Impact Factor