Cisd2 deficiency drives premature aging and causes mitochondria-mediated defects in mice.

Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan.
Genes & development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 06/2009; 23(10):1183-94. DOI: 10.1101/gad.1779509
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CISD2, the causative gene for Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), is a previously uncharacterized novel gene. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located on human chromosome 4q, where a genetic component for longevity maps. Here we show for the first time that CISD2 is involved in mammalian life-span control. Cisd2 deficiency in mice causes mitochondrial breakdown and dysfunction accompanied by autophagic cell death, and these events precede the two earliest manifestations of nerve and muscle degeneration; together, they lead to a panel of phenotypic features suggestive of premature aging. Our study also reveals that Cisd2 is primarily localized in the mitochondria and that mitochondrial degeneration appears to have a direct phenotypic consequence that triggers the accelerated aging process in Cisd2 knockout mice; furthermore, mitochondrial degeneration exacerbates with age, and the autophagy increases in parallel to the development of the premature aging phenotype. Additionally, our Cisd2 knockout mouse work provides strong evidence supporting an earlier clinical hypothesis that WFS is in part a mitochondria-mediated disorder; specifically, we propose that mutation of CISD2 causes the mitochondria-mediated disorder WFS2 in humans. Thus, this mutant mouse provides an animal model for mechanistic investigation of Cisd2 protein function and help with a pathophysiological understanding of WFS2.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract CISD2, an evolutionarily conserved novel gene, plays a crucial role in lifespan control and human disease. Mutations in human CISD2 cause type 2 Wolfram syndrome, a rare neurodegenerative and metabolic disorder associated with a shortened lifespan. Significantly, the CISD2 gene is located within a region on human chromosome 4q where a genetic component for human longevity has been mapped through a comparative genome analysis of centenarian siblings. We created Cisd2 knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mice to study the role of Cisd2 in development and pathophysiology, and demonstrated that Cisd2 expression affects lifespan in mammals. In the Cisd2 knockout mice, Cisd2 deficiency shortens lifespan and drives a panel of premature aging phenotypes. Additionally, an age-dependent decrease of Cisd2 expression has been detected during normal aging in mice. Interestingly, in the Cisd2 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that a persistent level of Cisd2 expression over the different stages of life gives the mice a long-lived phenotype that is linked to an extension in healthy lifespan and a delay in age-associated diseases. At the cellular level, Cisd2 deficiency leads to mitochondrial breakdown and dysfunction accompanied by cell death with autophagic features. Recent studies revealed that Cisd2 may function as an autophagy regulator involved in the Bcl-2 mediated regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, Cisd2 regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis and Ca(2+) has been proposed to have an important regulatory role in autophagy. Finally, it remains to be elucidated if and how the regulation in Ca(2+) homeostasis, autophagy and lifespan are interconnected at the molecular, cellular and organism levels.
    Free Radical Research 06/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CDGSH iron sulfur domain2 (CISD2) is an evolutionarily conserved gene. It functions to control mammalian life span and regulate human breast cancer cells proliferation. However, the characteristics of CISD2 expression and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear in human tumor. Our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of CISD2 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CISD2 were analyzed in eight cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer tumors by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine CISD2 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 149 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were used to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of CISD2 expression. CISD2 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation of CISD2 expression with the squamous cell carcinoma antigen (P = 0.000), myometrium invasion (P = 0.003), recurrence (P = 0.012), lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.019) and especially pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM; P = 0.000). Patients with higher CISD2 expression had shorter overall survival duration than patients with lower CISD2 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that CISD2 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Our results for the first time suggested that high CISD2 expression was closely correlated with PLNM and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer patients. CISD2 protein might be a novel biomarker for early-stage cervical cancer progression.
    Medical Oncology 09/2014; 31(9):183. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wolfram syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by diabetes and neurodegeneration and considered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disease. Despite the underlying importance of ER dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome and the identification of two causative genes, Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) and Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2), a molecular mechanism linking the ER to death of neurons and β cells has not been elucidated. Here we implicate calpain 2 in the mechanism of cell death in Wolfram syndrome. Calpain 2 is negatively regulated by WFS2, and elevated activation of calpain 2 by WFS2-knockdown correlates with cell death. Calpain activation is also induced by high cytosolic calcium mediated by the loss of function of WFS1. Calpain hyperactivation is observed in the WFS1 knockout mouse as well as in neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of Wolfram syndrome patients. A small-scale small-molecule screen targeting ER calcium homeostasis reveals that dantrolene can prevent cell death in neural progenitor cells derived from Wolfram syndrome iPS cells. Our results demonstrate that calpain and the pathway leading its activation provides potential therapeutic targets for Wolfram syndrome and other ER diseases.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor


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