Bladder Cancer Clusters in Florida: Identifying Populations at Risk
ABSTRACT Modifiable risk factors for bladder cancer have been identified, ie tobacco and chemical exposure. We identified high risk bladder cancer areas and risk factors associated with bladder cancer clusters in Florida using individual and area based data.
Spatial modeling was applied to 23,266 early and advanced bladder cancer cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2002 in Florida to identify areas of excess bladder cancer risk. Multivariable regression was used to determine whether sociodemographic indicators, smoking history and proximity to known arsenic contaminated drinking water well sites were associated with bladder cancer diagnosis in a specific area (cluster).
A total of 25 clusters were found to have a higher than expected bladder cancer rate, including 13 and 12 of early and late stage disease, respectively. Urban white patients were more likely to live in an advanced bladder cancer cluster. Advanced bladder cancer cluster membership was associated with living in close proximity to known arsenic contaminated drinking water wells.
There are multiple areas of early and late stage bladder cancer clusters in Florida. Individuals in an advanced bladder cancer cluster tended to live close to arsenic contaminated wells. Increased evaluation of potentially contaminated well water is warranted in these high risk areas. Targeted bladder cancer public awareness campaigns, smoking cessation support and potentially targeted screening should also be considered in communities at increased risk for bladder cancer. Our analytical approach can also be used by others to systematically identify communities at high risk for bladder and other cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Smoking, inadequate vitamin D and pesticide exposure have been linked to bladder cancer (BCa) in past studies. The objective of this study is to explore associations between BCa rates and these risk factors. BCa incidence and mortality rates among states were compared to smoking; solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels and drinking water from a surface water supply (which has greater residual pesticide contamination than groundwater and both are used as sources for drinking water). Lack of health insurance, median family income and urbanization were included to adjust for access to health care and socioeconomic status. BCa incidence and mortality correlated directly with smoking and inversely with solar UV radiation for males and females. BCa mortality correlated directly with drinking surface water for both sexes. Lack of health insurance correlated inversely with BCa incidence for females and trended toward significance for males. Multivariable analyses identified solar UV radiation as the best predictor of BCa incidence in males and solar UV radiation and smoking in females. Solar UV radiation, smoking and drinking surface water were the best predictors of BCa mortality in males, while smoking and drinking surface water were the best predictors of mortality in females. BCa incidence and mortality for both sexes correlated directly with smoking and inversely with solar UV radiation levels. BCa mortality for both sexes correlated with drinking water from a surface water source. It is hypothesized that BCa mortality risks may increase from drinking water contaminated with low levels of pesticides.International Urology and Nephrology 10/2009; 42(3):659-65. DOI:10.1007/s11255-009-9655-5 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Continued tobacco use following a bladder cancer (CaB) diagnosis puts patients at risk for other tobacco-associated diseases and has also been associated with heightened risks of treatment-related complications, tumour recurrence, morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to determine if patients with CaB who continue to smoke warrant a smoking cessation program as a resource for improving their prognosis and long-term health. A cross-sectional quantitative questionnaire-based study was performed between January and April 2009. We surveyed patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of CaB during their cystoscopy appointments at a single cancer centre. One hundred patients completed the survey with 72% of them admitting to smoking in their lifetime. A third of respondents smoked at the time of their diagnosis; 76% of patients who had been active smokers at the time of their diagnosis (n = 33) reported smoking at some point thereafter and 58% continued to smoke. Among continued smokers, they were classified in the following categories: 26% were in "precontemplation," 5% in "contemplation," 16% in "preparation," and 53% in "action;" 37% of patients who continued to smoke were interested in a hospital-based smoking cessation program. Overall, 70% reported smoking as a risk factor for a poor CaB prognosis. The two most common barriers to quitting were "trouble managing stress and mood" and "fear of gaining weight." Based on the data from our centre, patients with CaB who continue to smoke after their diagnosis warrant a smoking cessation program as a resource for improving prognosis and long-term health. Further research should focus on establishing an efficacious and cost-effective program that provides these patients with the resources they need to quit smoking.Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada 05/2011; 6(5):E167-73. DOI:10.5489/cuaj.10070 · 1.92 Impact Factor