Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Microtia in a Newborn With Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) Exposure: Phenocopy for Fryns Syndrome or Broad Spectrum of Teratogenic Effects?

Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.16). 06/2009; 149A(6):1237-40. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32684
Source: PubMed


A newborn female infant born to a woman on immunosuppressive medications including mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for a renal graft secondary to lupus nephritis presented with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and additional findings of microtia, esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, cleft palate, congenital heart defect, digital anomalies, and dysmorphic facial features. Pulmonary hypoplasia resulted in death at day 2 of life. She was presumed to have Fryns syndrome based on diagnostic criteria established for this recessive disorder with prominent features including CDH, facial anomalies, and nail hypoplasia. In retrospect, this infant's findings are more likely the result of teratogenic exposure to MMF, as more recent data have emerged linking aural atresia, digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features to this drug. To date, this is the only human report of CDH in an infant with prenatal exposure to MMF, although the manufacturer's package insert alludes to animal studies with a broad spectrum of malformations, including CDH. Thus, a teratogenic exposure can mimic a known Mendelian genetic syndrome, and caution is urged in presuming a genetic etiology for infants with potential teratogenic exposure to relatively new drugs with limited published animal data.

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Available from: Melissa Parisi, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Bilateral severe microtia, EAC atresia, facial and oral cleft, absence of orbits, eyelid, iris, and retinal coloboma, microphthalmia, cataracts, lens dislocation, mandibular hypoplasia, absent maxilla and orbits, agenesis of the corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, truncus arteriosus, aberrant right subclavian artery, single umbilical artery, esophageal atresia, rib defect, hemivertebrae, left renal agenesis, streak ovary, digitalized thumbs. Parisi et al., 2009 Kidney transplant, "
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    ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate mofetil is a widely prescribed immunosuppressive agent for transplant patients and autoimmune diseases. Potential teratogenic effects after in utero exposure to mycophenolate mofetil has been described in human clinical observations. The complete clinical pattern is still being delineated. We present four newborns with esophageal atresia and other congenital anomalies, prenatally exposed to mycophenolate mofetil during the first trimester. Two of the cases had other defects related to the embryopathy: microtia, eye abnormalities and oral clefts. Two cases did not show major craniofacial anomalies. We propose that esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula is a feature of mycophenolate embryopathy even without the presence of other major craniofacial anomalies. The human teratogenicity of MMF is reinforced by this report, and the current contraceptive recommendations about its use in fertile women are stressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Reproductive Toxicology 10/2014; 50C:117-121. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.10.015 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has become a major therapeutic option in the management of patients undergoing transplantation, as well as in the treatment of autoimmune conditions. Case reports have suggested that MMF use during pregnancy is associated with a specific pattern of congenital malformations. Because many pregnancies are unplanned, it is imperative to assess the teratogenic risk of MMF. Using the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists network, we prospectively identified and followed pregnant women exposed to MMF during pregnancy to update this teratogenic potential. Ten cases were identified and all received the drug during embryogenesis at the recommended doses (500 to 1500 mg daily). There were four miscarriages and one elective abortion due to fear of teratogenesis. None of the five live births had malformations. It is possible that, similar to other human teratogens discovered first by case reports, the absolute risk from MMF may be smaller than originally calculated based on case reports. Because the major malformations phenotypic of MMF may be visualized in utero (e.g., microtia, cleft palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac malformation), diagnostic imaging should be performed.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe an infant male of Cambodian background who has typical craniofacial features of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) embryopathy and a complex congenital heart defect (CHD) (double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, pulmonic stenosis, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return). Together with four case reports and the 20 patients included in two recent reviews, we report 24 (19 affected, five normal) patients with this pattern of anomalies. Eight (33%) have a CHD, most commonly, conotruncal or aortic arch defects (6/8, 75%). This would support the hypothesis that disturbance of cranial neural crest migration occurs in exposed infants, and may predict which additional anomalies will be observed in the future. We also attempted to score the severity of the facial anomalies in each MMF patient using a system created by plastic surgeons for patients with hemifacial microsomia. This classification had modest utility in comparing severity and correlating facial to extracranial defects. The findings are viewed with caution because of the preliminary methodology. Finally, since several exposed infants have been reported to be minimally affected, we remind clinicians to be sensitive to the potential mild expression of the effects of this teratogen. This awareness may influence clinical management of apparently normal MMF-exposed individuals.
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