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Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Microtia in a Newborn With Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) Exposure: Phenocopy for Fryns Syndrome or Broad Spectrum of Teratogenic Effects?

Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.3). 06/2009; 149A(6):1237-40. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32684
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A newborn female infant born to a woman on immunosuppressive medications including mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for a renal graft secondary to lupus nephritis presented with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and additional findings of microtia, esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, cleft palate, congenital heart defect, digital anomalies, and dysmorphic facial features. Pulmonary hypoplasia resulted in death at day 2 of life. She was presumed to have Fryns syndrome based on diagnostic criteria established for this recessive disorder with prominent features including CDH, facial anomalies, and nail hypoplasia. In retrospect, this infant's findings are more likely the result of teratogenic exposure to MMF, as more recent data have emerged linking aural atresia, digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features to this drug. To date, this is the only human report of CDH in an infant with prenatal exposure to MMF, although the manufacturer's package insert alludes to animal studies with a broad spectrum of malformations, including CDH. Thus, a teratogenic exposure can mimic a known Mendelian genetic syndrome, and caution is urged in presuming a genetic etiology for infants with potential teratogenic exposure to relatively new drugs with limited published animal data.

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