Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.
ABSTRACT Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.
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ABSTRACT: We present here a framework for the study of molecular variation within a single species. Information on DNA haplotype divergence is incorporated into an analysis of variance format, derived from a matrix of squared-distances among all pairs of haplotypes. This analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) produces estimates of variance components and F-statistic analogs, designated here as phi-statistics, reflecting the correlation of haplotypic diversity at different levels of hierarchical subdivision. The method is flexible enough to accommodate several alternative input matrices, corresponding to different types of molecular data, as well as different types of evolutionary assumptions, without modifying the basic structure of the analysis. The significance of the variance components and phi-statistics is tested using a permutational approach, eliminating the normality assumption that is conventional for analysis of variance but inappropriate for molecular data. Application of AMOVA to human mitochondrial DNA haplotype data shows that population subdivisions are better resolved when some measure of molecular differences among haplotypes is introduced into the analysis. At the intraspecific level, however, the additional information provided by knowing the exact phylogenetic relations among haplotypes or by a nonlinear translation of restriction-site change into nucleotide diversity does not significantly modify the inferred population genetic structure. Monte Carlo studies show that site sampling does not fundamentally affect the significance of the molecular variance components. The AMOVA treatment is easily extended in several different directions and it constitutes a coherent and flexible framework for the statistical analysis of molecular data.Genetics 07/1992; 131(2):479-91. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the major crops in the world and was domesticated from a wild progenitor, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc., in East Asia. In order to address the questions concerning the evolution and maternal lineage of soybean, we surveyed the variation in chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeats (cpSSR) of 326 wild and cultivated soybean accessions that were collected from various Asian countries. Twenty-three variants were detected at six cpSSRs in the accessions tested. All of the variants were found in wild soybean, whereas only 14 variants existed in the cultigen. Combining the variants at the six cpSSRs gave 52 haplotypes in the former and eight haplotypes in the latter. Both analyses indicated a considerably higher genetic diversity in the wild soybean. Around 75% of the cultivated accessions tested possessed a common haplotype (no. 49), which was detected in only seven wild accessions, six from southern Japan and one from southern China. The predominant haplotype in the cultigen may therefore have originated from a rare haplotype of the wild soybean that is presently distributed in the southern areas of Japan and China. The remaining seven haplotypes in the cultigen were distributed regionally, and except for three rare haplotypes, largely overlapped with the distributions of wild accessions with the same respective haplotypes. Our results strongly suggest that the cultivated soybeans with different cpDNA haplotypes originated independently in different regions from different wild gene pools and/or hybrid swarms between cultivated and wild forms.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 11/2002; 105(5):645-653. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last 10,000 years, crop domestication has been the single most important human cultural development. Grasses are prominent among these crops, and provide the vast majority of the world's food. Similar traits have been selected during the domestication and breeding of these critically important grasses, and since they share a similar complement of genes, the same set of genes may have been selected. Even though the process of domestication occurred over the same 5000 to 10,000 year period, the domesticated grasses have major differences in genome structure, diversity, and life history. Molecular investigations of grass domestication have succeeded in identifying progenitor species and are beginning to catalog genetic resources. Additionally, research is now elucidating some of the basic processes by which crops have evolved over the last few millennia. In this review, we discuss our present knowledge of molecular diversity among the grass crops and relate that diversity to the genes involved in domestication and to yield gains. Understanding the connection between diversity and genome structure will be critical to future crop breeding.Genetics Research 07/2001; 77(3):213-8. · 2.00 Impact Factor