Platinum, palladium, and rhodium deposition to the Prunus laurus cerasus leaf surface as an indicator of the vehicular traffic pollution in the city of Varese area: an easy and reliable method to detect PGEs released from automobile catalytic converters.
The widespread use of some platinum group elements as catalysts to minimize emission of pollutants from combustion engines produced a constantly growing increase of the concentration of these elements in the environment; their potential toxicological properties explain the increasing interest in routine easy monitoring. We have found that leaves of Prunus laurus cerasus are efficient collectors of particulate with a dimension <60-80 mum, and a simple and reliable procedure was developed to reveal traces of platinum, palladium, and rhodium released from automotive catalysts. The analysis of the dust deposited on the foliage is a direct indicator of traffic pollution.
Leaves of P. laurus cerasus were washed by sonication in a mixture of water and 2-propanol and the washings, to be discarded, were separated by centrifugation to yield typically 0.05-1.2 g of dust that, after mineralization, was directly submitted for atomic absorption analysis.
Comparison of the 2007 and 2004-2005 results showed a dramatic reduction of the platinum levels and revealed that palladium is now the main component of this traffic-related pollution.
The results are consistent with the increasing diffusion of cars with a diesel engine whose catalysts are made up of Pt and/or Pd alone, and gives a significant insight into the recent evolution in catalyst design that replaces platinum for palladium.
The proposed analytical procedure is simple, with short preparation times, and greatly reduces matrix effects so that atomic absorption spectroscopy can easily detect the three noble metals at the ng/g level in the dust.
The results clearly show that Pd concentrations have increased over time, and must be cause for concern.
Available from: Massimo Labra
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human activities have increased the levels of environmental palladium (Pd) worldwide. Due to the growing evidence of its toxicity, Pd pollution has become the focus of serious concern. Several studies have given an account of the increasing concentration of Pd in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the current study is to analyze the physiological and molecular effects induced by Pd on freshwater unicellular green algae. To do this, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (P. subcapitata) was exposed in vitro to different concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg l(-1)) of K(2)PdCl(4), a soluble salt of Pd, corresponding to 0.03, 0.075 and 0.15 mg l(-1) of Pd. The uptake and the effects on algal growth and morphology were determined. The main results are that Pd is able to induce damage in P. subcapitata at a concentration of 0.1 mg l(-1) of K(2)PdCl(4), with the damage becoming more evident at a concentration of 0.25 mg l(-1)of K(2)PdCl(4); at a concentration of 0.5 mg l(-1) of K(2)PdCl(4), cellular degeneration occurs. The main cellular target of Pd is the chloroplast, as shown by TEM and proteomic analysis. TEM analysis also showed accumulation of precipitates, probably of Pd, in the chloroplasts, although further experiments are necessary to confirm that these are Pd-precipitates. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) demonstrated that Pd, even at the lowest concentration tested, induced randomly distributed DNA changes either directly or indirectly in the algal genome and that oxidative processes were involved.
Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2011; 102(1-2):104-13. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.01.002 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Automobile catalysts are major anthropogenic sources of ultra-traces of platinum group elements (PGEs) in the environment. Nanoparticles of platinum, palladium, and rhodium, the active components of autocatalysts, are being spread into the environment during vehicle operation. Bioaccumulation of the metals can lead to their elevated levels in living organisms. The evaluation of the health risk from PGEs requires the investigation of a large variety of environmental and biological materials for their content. Plants, airborne particulate matters, soils, and sediments are most often examined for such purposes. The introduction of platinum and ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents into chemotherapy has stimulated growing interest in their determination in clinical materials (physiological fluids and tissues). Identification and determination of drug species formed under physiological conditions are fundamental for recognition of the mechanism of their biological activity. Analytical procedures applicable to the determination of PGEs in various environmental and clinical samples are reviewed in this article.
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 07/2011; 41(3-3):214-235. DOI:10.1080/10408347.2011.588922 · 1.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study assessed the concentrations of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) in surface sediments and sedimentary cores collected from the Pearl River Estuary with a view of evaluating the distribution, background levels, possible sources, and contamination level of anthropogenic Pt and Pd.
Thirty-six samples of surface sediments and 12 samples from sedimentary cores were collected. Al(2)O(3) was analyzed on fused glass disks by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Heavy metal elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pt and Pd were separated from the sample matrix by anion exchange chromatography and subsequent solvent extraction after samples had been digested in Carius tubes using aqua regia. The analysis of Pt and Pd was performed by isotopic dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.
Pt and Pd concentrations in surface sediments were 0.28-2.11 and 0.39-38.30 ng/g, respectively, and Pt and Pd concentrations in sedimentary cores were 0.19-1.18 and 0.15-1.76 ng/g, respectively. Background values of Pt and Pd were 0.20-1.17 and 0.10-1.34 ng/g, respectively. The spatial distribution of the enrichment factor differed between Pt and Pd in surface sediments. Down-core variations in Pt, Pd, and other heavy metal elements were similar in all cases and were related to sediment type.
Some of the Pt and Pt in surface samples were derived from anthropogenic emissions. Pt and Pd were delivered to the sediment by fluvial input. In addition to vehicle exhaust catalysts, Pt and Pd were derived from other sources (e.g., industrial process). An important post-burial remobilization process of Pt and Pd is likely to be particle mixing by billows caused by typhoon.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2011; 19(4):1305-14. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0653-7 · 2.83 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.