Molecular responses to high-intensity interval exercise.
ABSTRACT From a cell-signaling perspective, short-duration intense muscular work is typically associated with resistance training and linked to pathways that stimulate growth. However, brief repeated sessions of high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) induce rapid phenotypic changes that resemble traditional endurance training. Given the oxidative phenotype that is rapidly upregulated by HIT, it is plausible that metabolic adaptations to this type of exercise could be mediated in part through signaling pathways normally associated with endurance training. A key controller of oxidative enzyme expression in skeletal muscle is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a transcriptional coactivator that serves to coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis. Most studies of acute PGC-1alpha regulation in humans have used very prolonged exercise interventions; however, it was recently shown that a surprisingly small dose of very intense interval exercise, equivalent to only 2 min of all-out cycling, was sufficient to increase PGC-1alpha mRNA during recovery. Intense interval exercise has also been shown to acutely increase the activity of signaling pathways linked to PGC-1alpha and mitochondrial biogenesis, including AMP-activated protein kinase (alpha1 and alpha2 subunits) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In contrast, signaling pathways linked to muscle growth, including protein kinase B/Akt and downstream targets p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and 4E binding protein 1, are generally unchanged after acute interval exercise. Signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase to PGC-1alpha may therefore explain, in part, the metabolic remodeling induced by HIT, including mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased capacity for glucose and fatty acid oxidation.
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ABSTRACT: After stroke, people with weakness enter a vicious cycle of limited activity and deconditioning that limits functional recovery and exacerbates cardiovascular risk factors. Conventional aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity, function, and overall cardiometabolic health after stroke. Recently, a new exercise strategy has shown greater effectiveness than conventional aerobic exercise for improving aerobic capacity and other outcomes among healthy adults and people with heart disease. This strategy, called high-intensity interval training (HIT), uses bursts of concentrated effort alternated with recovery periods to maximize exercise intensity. Three poststroke HIT studies have shown preliminary effectiveness for improving functional recovery. However, these studies were varied in approach and the safety of poststroke HIT has received little attention. The objectives of this narrative review are to (1) propose a framework for Categorizing HIT protocols; (2) summarize the safety and effectiveness evidence of HIT among healthy adults and people with heart disease and stroke; (3) discuss theoretical mechanisms, protocol selection, and safety considerations for poststroke HIT; and (4) provide directions for future research.Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 07/2013; 20(4):2013. DOI:10.1310/tsr2004-317 · 1.22 Impact Factor
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training 01/2014; 19(1):36-40. DOI:10.1123/ijatt.2013-0046 · 0.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determinate the changes in the Autonomic Balance, Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate after continuous versus intermittent exercise protocols. Methods: Seven active and healthy male (33 ± 5.1 years) participated in the study. Each subject performed two exercise protocols: (i) a continuous exercise at 110% of the lactate threshold (CONT). The CONT protocol consisted in continuous running, and the distance covered was the same in meters as it was in the intermittent session, and (ii) an intermittent exercise at 100% of the Peak Treadmill Velocity (INTT). The protocol consisted of 30 min of 15 s running, interspersed with 15s of passive rest. Autonomic balance was assessed through the LF/HF ratio, before beginning the exercises, immediately finishing the exercises and 24 h post-exercise; RPE was evaluated every 5 min in each exercise protocol; and blood lactate was measured immediately after both protocols. Alpha level was set at P ≤ .05. Results: Autonomic balance did not show significant differences between protocols (P = .60). RPE during INTT exercise was significantly higher than CONT exercise (P = .01). Blood lactate levels after exercise did not show significant differences (P = .68). Heart rate variability param- eters in the time domain (mean RR and pNN50) show no statistical differences between both protocols pre and 24 h post exercise (P = .24 and P = .61, respectively). Conclusions: The data suggest that intermittent exercise is perceived more intense than con- tinuous, although both protocols showed similar internal loads in autonomic balance and blood lactate levels.Apunts Medicine de l'Esport 11/2014; 50(185). DOI:10.1016/j.apunts.2014.09.001