Molecular responses to high-intensity interval exercise.
ABSTRACT From a cell-signaling perspective, short-duration intense muscular work is typically associated with resistance training and linked to pathways that stimulate growth. However, brief repeated sessions of high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) induce rapid phenotypic changes that resemble traditional endurance training. Given the oxidative phenotype that is rapidly upregulated by HIT, it is plausible that metabolic adaptations to this type of exercise could be mediated in part through signaling pathways normally associated with endurance training. A key controller of oxidative enzyme expression in skeletal muscle is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a transcriptional coactivator that serves to coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis. Most studies of acute PGC-1alpha regulation in humans have used very prolonged exercise interventions; however, it was recently shown that a surprisingly small dose of very intense interval exercise, equivalent to only 2 min of all-out cycling, was sufficient to increase PGC-1alpha mRNA during recovery. Intense interval exercise has also been shown to acutely increase the activity of signaling pathways linked to PGC-1alpha and mitochondrial biogenesis, including AMP-activated protein kinase (alpha1 and alpha2 subunits) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. In contrast, signaling pathways linked to muscle growth, including protein kinase B/Akt and downstream targets p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and 4E binding protein 1, are generally unchanged after acute interval exercise. Signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase to PGC-1alpha may therefore explain, in part, the metabolic remodeling induced by HIT, including mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased capacity for glucose and fatty acid oxidation.
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ABSTRACT: Background Data concerning the physical demands of soccer (e.g., activity pattern) suggest that a high level of performance requires well-developed neuromuscular function (NF). Proficient NF may be relevant to maintain and/or increase players’ short- (intense periods of soccer-specific activity; accelerations, decelerations, and sprinting) and long-term performance during a match and throughout the season. Objective This review examines the extent to which distinct modes of strength training improve soccer players’ performance, as well as the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on the physical capacity of players. Data sources A selection of studies was performed in two screening phases. The first phase consisted of identifying articles through a systematic search using relevant databases, including the US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), MEDLINE, and SportDiscus. Several permutations of keywords were utilized (e.g., soccer; strength; power; muscle function), along with the additional scanning of the reference lists of relevant manuscripts. Given the wide range of this review, additional researchers were included. The second phase involved applying six selection criteria to the articles. Results and conclusions After the two selection phases, 24 manuscripts involving a total sample of 523 soccer players were considered. Our analysis suggests that professional players need to significantly increase their strength to obtain slight improvements in certain running-based actions (sprint and change of direction speed). Strength training induces greater performance improvements in jump actions than in running-based activities, and these achievements varied according to the motor task [e.g., greater improvements in acceleration (10 m) than in maximal speed (40 m) running movements and in non-squat jump (SJ) than in SSC-based actions (countermovement jump)]. With regard to the strength/power training methods used by soccer players, high-intensity resistance training seems to be more efficient than moderate-intensity resistance training (hypertrophic). From a training frequency perspective, two weekly sessions of strength training are sufficient to increase a player’s force production and muscle power-based actions during pre-season, with one weekly session being adequate to avoid in-season detraining. Nevertheless, to further improve performance during the competitive period, training should incorporate a higher volume of soccer-specific power-based actions that target the neuromuscular system. Combined strength/power training programs involving different movement patterns and an increased focus on soccer-specific power-based actions are preferred over traditional resistance exercises, not only due to their superior efficiency but also due to their ecological value. Strength/power training programs should incorporate a significant number of exercises targeting the efficiency of stretch-shortening-cycle activities and soccer-specific strength-based actions. Manipulation of training surfaces could constitute an important training strategy (e.g., when players are returning from an injury). In addition, given the conditional concurrent nature of the sport, concurrent high-intensity strength and high-intensity endurance training modes (HIT) may enhance a player’s overall performance capacity. Our analysis suggests that neuromuscular training improves both physiological and physical measures associated with the high-level performance of soccer playersSports Medicine - Open 04/2015; 2(1):1-27. DOI:10.1186/s40798-015-0006-z
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training 01/2014; 19(1):36-40. DOI:10.1123/ijatt.2013-0046 · 0.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determinate the changes in the Autonomic Balance, Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate after continuous versus intermittent exercise protocols. Methods: Seven active and healthy male (33 ± 5.1 years) participated in the study. Each subject performed two exercise protocols: (i) a continuous exercise at 110% of the lactate threshold (CONT). The CONT protocol consisted in continuous running, and the distance covered was the same in meters as it was in the intermittent session, and (ii) an intermittent exercise at 100% of the Peak Treadmill Velocity (INTT). The protocol consisted of 30 min of 15 s running, interspersed with 15s of passive rest. Autonomic balance was assessed through the LF/HF ratio, before beginning the exercises, immediately finishing the exercises and 24 h post-exercise; RPE was evaluated every 5 min in each exercise protocol; and blood lactate was measured immediately after both protocols. Alpha level was set at P ≤ .05. Results: Autonomic balance did not show significant differences between protocols (P = .60). RPE during INTT exercise was significantly higher than CONT exercise (P = .01). Blood lactate levels after exercise did not show significant differences (P = .68). Heart rate variability param- eters in the time domain (mean RR and pNN50) show no statistical differences between both protocols pre and 24 h post exercise (P = .24 and P = .61, respectively). Conclusions: The data suggest that intermittent exercise is perceived more intense than con- tinuous, although both protocols showed similar internal loads in autonomic balance and blood lactate levels.Apunts Medicine de l'Esport 11/2014; 50(185). DOI:10.1016/j.apunts.2014.09.001