High frequency of cephalic neural crest cells shows coexistence of neurogenic, melanogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacities

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre de Recherche 2197 Laboratoire Développement, Evolution et Plasticité du Système Nerveux, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2009; 106(22):8947-52. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0903780106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The neural crest (NC) is a vertebrate innovation that distinguishes vertebrates from other chordates and was critical for the development and evolution of a "New Head and Brain." In early vertebrates, the NC was the source of dermal armor of fossil jawless fish. In extant vertebrates, including mammals, the NC forms the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and the cartilage and bone of the face. Here, we show that in avian embryos, a large majority of cephalic NC cells (CNCCs) have the ability to differentiate into cell types as diverse as neurons, melanocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Moreover, we find that the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) acts on CNCCs to increase endochondral osteogenesis while having no effect on osteoblasts prone to membranous ossification. We have developed culture conditions that demonstrate that "neural-mesenchymal" differentiation abilities are present in more than 90% of CNCCs. A highly multipotent progenitor (able to yield neurons, glia, melanocytes, myofibroblasts, chondrocytes, and osteocytes) comprises 7-13% of the clonogenic cells in the absence and presence of Shh, respectively. This progenitor is a good candidate for a cephalic NC stem cell.

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Available from: Giordano Wosgrau Calloni, Aug 12, 2015
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    • "Especially in context of bone regeneration under contribution of autologously transplanted stem cells, directed differentiation of human NCSCs into an osteogenic lineage has gained great interest. Usually, the in vitro-osteogenesis by cranial NCSCs is induced by supplementation of the cultivation medium with a cocktail of (bio-) chemical agents including the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Baek et al., 2013; Calloni et al., 2009). Importantly, in vivo, dexamethasone exhibits severe side effects common to other glucocorticoids including immunosuppressant action, which could increase the risk of infection after autologous transplantation of NCSCs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenic differentiation of various adult stem cell populations such as neural crest-derived stem cells is of great interest in context of bone regeneration. Ideally, exogenously differentiation should mimic endogenous differentiation process, which is partly mediated by topological cues. To elucidate the osteoinductive potential of porous substrates with different pore diameters (30 nm, 100 nm), human neural crest-derived stem cells isolated from the inferior nasal turbinate were cultivated on the surface of nanoporous titanium covered membranes without additional chemical or biological osteoinductive cues. As controls, flat titanium without any topological features and osteogenic medium was used. Cultivation of human neural crest-derived stem cells on 30 nm pores resulted in osteogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase activity after seven days as well as by calcium deposition after 3 weeks of cultivation. In contrast, cultivation on flat titanium and membranes with 100 nm pores was not sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate increase of osteogenic transcripts including Osterix, Osteocalcin and up-regulation of Integrin β1 and α2 in 30 nm pore approach only. Thus, transplantation of stem cells pre-cultivated on nanostructured implants might improve the clinical outcome by support of the graft adherence and acceleration of the regeneration process.
    Stem Cell Research 07/2014; 13(1):98-110. DOI:10.1016/j.scr.2014.04.017 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    • "derivatives including neurons, glia, melanocytes, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), chondrocytes, and osteoblasts [11] [12]. Therefore, these neural crest cells have been termed " neural crest stem cells " (NCSCs). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplants have been approved for treating central nervous system (CNS) injuries and diseases; however, their clinical applications are limited. Here, we model the therapeutic potential of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vitro. DPCs were isolated from rat vibrissae and characterized by immunocytofluorescence, RT-PCR, and multidifferentiation assays. We examined whether these cells could secrete neurotrophic factors (NTFs) by using cocultures of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) with conditioned medium and ELISA assay. DPCs expressed Sox10, P75, Nestin, Sox9, and differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and neurons under specific inducing conditions. The DPC-conditioned medium (DPC-CM) induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and promoted neurite outgrowth. Results of ELISA assay showed that compared to BMSCs, DPCs secreted more brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Moreover, we observed that, compared with the total DPC population, sphere-forming DPCs expressed higher levels of Nestin and P75 and secreted greater amounts of GDNF. The DPCs from craniofacial hair follicle papilla may be a new and promising source for treating CNS injuries and diseases.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:186239. DOI:10.1155/2014/186239 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control group), 1–50 mM aflatoxin B 1 and/or 20 mM hesperidin (Sigma) were added to the medium. Phenotypes of cells were analysed with antibodies against lineage-specific markers: HNK 1 for glial cells (Calloni et al., 2009) and b-III tubulin (Promega) for neurons. "
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    ABSTRACT: The neural crest (NC) corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potentials. The derivatives of the NC at trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. Despite the well-known influence of aflatoxins on the development of cancer, the issue of whether they also influence NC cells has not been yet addressed. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of aflatoxin B(1) on quail NC cells and the concomitant effects of the flavonoid hesperidin associated with this mycotoxin. We show for the first time that aflatoxin B(1) decreases the viability and the total number of glial and neuronal cells/field, although their proportions in relation to the total number of cells were not altered. Therefore, aflatoxin has no effect on NC differentiation. However, this compound was able to reduce NC proliferation and NC survival. Furthermore, the co-administration of hesperidin, a well-known polyphenolic protector of cell death, partially prevented the effect of aflatoxin B(1) . Taken together, our results demonstrate that aflatoxin B(1) is toxic to NC cells, an effect partially prevented by the flavonoid hesperidin. This study may contribute to the understanding of the effects of these compounds during early embryonic development and offer potentially more assertive diets and treatments for pregnant animals.
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