Autoantibodies and associated T-cell responses to determinants within the 831-860 region of the autoantigen IA-2 in Type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction & Endocrinology, 2nd Floor Hodgkin Building, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of Autoimmunity (Impact Factor: 7.02). 06/2009; 33(2):147-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2009.04.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT B-cells influence T-cell reactivity by facilitating antigen presentation, but the role of autoantibody-secreting B-cells in regulating T-cell responses in Type 1 diabetes is poorly defined. The aims of this study were to characterise epitopes on the IA-2 autoantigen for three monoclonal antibodies from diabetic patients by amino acid substitutions of selected residues of IA-2, establish contributions of these epitopes to binding of serum antibodies in Type 1 diabetes and relate B- and T-cell responses to overlapping determinants on IA-2. The monoclonal antibodies recognised overlapping epitopes, with residues within the 831-860 region of IA-2 contributing to binding; substitution of Glu836 inhibited binding of all three antibodies. Monoclonal antibody Fab fragments and substitution of residues within the 831-836 region blocked serum antibody binding to an IA-2 643-937 construct. IL-10-secreting T-cells responding to peptides within the 831-860 region were detected by cytokine-specific ELISPOT in diabetic patients and responses to 841-860 peptide were associated with antibodies to the region of IA-2 recognised by the monoclonal antibodies. The study identifies a region of IA-2 frequently recognised by antibodies in Type 1 diabetes and demonstrates that these responses are associated with T-cells secreting IL-10 in response to a neighbouring determinant.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on genes that control β-cell targeting in autoimmune, type 1-dependent, diabetes (T1D) and on insulin as the major autoantigen recognized by T lymphocytes throughout the disease process. T1D associates with multiple gene variants. Beyond genes that predispose to general failure of immune tolerance to self, loci identified by the analysis of crosses between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and conventional mouse strains harbour genes that control β-cell targeting or the deviation of autoimmunity towards other tissues. We report here the role of genes encoding co-activation molecules involved in the activation of T lymphocytes, ICOS and ICOS ligand (B7RP1). NOD mice which are deficient in either of these two molecules are protected from diabetes, but instead develop a neuromuscular autoimmune disease. We also report the characterization in humans of T lymphocytes that are specific for major β-cell autoantigens, especially insulin. This opens the way towards new bioassays in the diagnosis of autoimmunity and towards autoantigen-specific immunotherapy in T1D. In order to develop a new preclinical model of T1D that would allow testing insulin epitopes to induce immune tolerance in vivo, we developed a mouse that is deficient in endogenous major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes and deficient for the two murine insulin genes and that express human class I, class II and insulin genes.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 10/2013; 15(suppl 3):89-97. · 5.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A) are associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Here we examined IA-2A affinity and epitope specificity to assess heterogeneity in response intensity in relation to pathogenesis and diabetes risk in 50 children who were prospectively followed from birth. At first IA-2A appearance, affinity ranged from 10(7) to 10(11)L/mol and was high (>1.0×10(9)L/mol) in 41 (82%) children. IA-2A affinity was not associated with epitope specificity or HLA class II haplotype. On follow-up, affinity increased or remained high, and IA-2A were commonly against epitopes within the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IA-2 domain and the homologue protein IA-2β. IA-2A were preceded or accompanied by other islet autoantibodies in 49 (98%) children, of which 34 progressed to diabetes. IA-2A affinity did not stratify diabetes risk. In conclusion, the IA-2A response in children is intense with rapid maturation against immunogenic epitopes and a strong association with diabetes development.
    Clinical Immunology 10/2012; 145(3):224-229. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The concept that immune responses to self antigens are regulated by anti-idiotypic networks has attracted renewed interest following reports of circulating factors within IgG fractions of serum that impair detection of autoantibodies with autoantigen. Thus, preclearance of sera with bead-immobilised monoclonal autoantibodies to the Type 1 diabetes autoantigen GAD65, or prebinding of serum antibodies to protein A Sepharose prior to addition of antigen, increases immunoreactivity detected in serum samples consistent with the trapping on the beads of anti-idiotypic antibodies that block antibody binding to the autoantigen. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies to another major target of autoantibodies in Type 1 diabetes, IA-2. As previously observed for GAD65, preadsorption of serum samples with immobilised monoclonal IA-2 autoantibody, or prebinding to protein A Sepharose, resulted in substantial increases in subsequent immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled IA-2 in a proportion of samples. However, control experiments indicated that the increases seen on pre-incubation with immobilized autoantibodies were caused by displacement of the antibody by serum IgG, whereas impaired detection of immunoreactivity in liquid-phase radiobinding assays was the result of formation of insoluble complexes that bind poorly to protein A. The results emphasise the importance of direct demonstration of specific binding of antibodies to the idiotype in the study of idiotypic networks in autoimmunity. Variability between patients in formation of insoluble immune complexes has implications for the design and standardization of autoantibody assays for diabetes prediction.
    Autoimmunity 09/2013; 46(6):375-81. · 2.75 Impact Factor