Autoantibodies and associated T-cell responses to determinants within the 831-860 region of the autoantigen IA-2 in Type 1 diabetes
ABSTRACT B-cells influence T-cell reactivity by facilitating antigen presentation, but the role of autoantibody-secreting B-cells in regulating T-cell responses in Type 1 diabetes is poorly defined. The aims of this study were to characterise epitopes on the IA-2 autoantigen for three monoclonal antibodies from diabetic patients by amino acid substitutions of selected residues of IA-2, establish contributions of these epitopes to binding of serum antibodies in Type 1 diabetes and relate B- and T-cell responses to overlapping determinants on IA-2. The monoclonal antibodies recognised overlapping epitopes, with residues within the 831-860 region of IA-2 contributing to binding; substitution of Glu836 inhibited binding of all three antibodies. Monoclonal antibody Fab fragments and substitution of residues within the 831-836 region blocked serum antibody binding to an IA-2 643-937 construct. IL-10-secreting T-cells responding to peptides within the 831-860 region were detected by cytokine-specific ELISPOT in diabetic patients and responses to 841-860 peptide were associated with antibodies to the region of IA-2 recognised by the monoclonal antibodies. The study identifies a region of IA-2 frequently recognised by antibodies in Type 1 diabetes and demonstrates that these responses are associated with T-cells secreting IL-10 in response to a neighbouring determinant.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether autoantigen directed T-cell reactivity relates to beta-cell function during the first 78 weeks after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. 50 adults and 49 children (mean age 27.3 and 10.9 years respectively) with recent onset type 1 diabetes who participated in a placebo-controlled trial of immune intervention with DiaPep277 were analyzed. Secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and IL-10 by single peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon stimulation with islet antigens GAD65, heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-like-antigen (pIA2) or tetanus toxoid (TT) was determined applying ELISPOT; beta-cell function was evaluated by glucagon stimulated C-peptide. Multivariate regression analysis was applied. In general, number of islet antigen-reactive cells decreased over 78 weeks in both adults and children, whereas reactivity to TT was not reduced. In addition, there was an association between the quality of immune cell responses and beta-cell function. Overall, increased responses by IFN-gamma secreting cells were associated with lower beta-cell function whereas IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 cytokine responses were positively associated with beta-cell function in adults and children. Essentially, the same results were obtained with three different models of regression analysis. The number of detectable islet-reactive immune cells decreases within 1-2 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Cytokine production by antigen-specific PBMC reactivity is related to beta-cell function as measured by stimulated C-peptide. Cellular immunity appears to regress soon after disease diagnosis and begin of insulin therapy.Journal of Autoimmunity 10/2009; 34(2):127-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2009.08.004 · 7.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An autoimmune response can be induced with the application of dendritic cells (DCs), offering a viable tumor vaccine for cancer immunotherapy. Previous studies have shown that DC-based tumor vaccines in animal tumor models can inhibit tumor growth and induce autoantibodies transiently without clinical or histological features of autoimmunity. The present study aimed to investigate the role of immune response induced by dendritic cells-based therapy, especially anti-ds DNA antibodies in tumor inhibition. In this study, high titers of anti-ds DNA antibodies were induced after injecting syngeneic dendritic cells into BALB/c mice. In addition, mice immunized with DCs showed the inhibition of RL male symbol 1, BALB/c leukemia cell line, tumor growth, and prolonged survival times of tumor mice but no significant difference was found in specific CTL response and NK cell activity when compared to those of the control group. Anti-ds DNA monoclonal antibodies can recognize RL male symbol 1 cells but not normal cells by FACS analysis. Monoclonal anti-ds DNA antibody was demonstrated to be able to lyse tumor cells via complement mediated reaction in vitro and also exhibits the anti-tumor effects when the antibody was injected into tumor-implanted mice. The data suggested that immunization with dendritic cells can induce autoimmune response, which might exert anti-tumor activity in vivo.Journal of Autoimmunity 10/2009; 34(4):364-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2009.08.013 · 7.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies to islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) are important markers for predicting diabetes in children and young adults. Harmonization of IA-2A assay measurement is essential if results from different laboratories are to be compared. We investigated whether sodium azide, a bacteriostatic agent added to some assays, could affect IA-2A binding and thereby contribute to differences in IA-2A measurement between laboratories. Addition of 0.1% azide to assay buffer was found to reduce median IA-2A binding of 18 selected sera from IA-2A positive patients with type 1 diabetes and their relatives by 41% (range, 78 to -33%, p<0.001). The effect on binding was epitope specific; median IA-2A binding by 14 sera with antibodies to the protein tyrosine phosphatase region of IA-2 was reduced by 48% (range, 11 to 78%, p<0.001), while binding by 4 sera with antibodies specific to only the juxtamembrane region of IA-2 showed no change (median increase 16% (range 6 to 33%, p=0.125). When the Tween-20 concentration was reduced from 1% to 0.15% the median reduction in IA-2A binding with azide by the 18 sera was only 10% (range, -12 to 41%, p<0.001). Tween-20 also exerted an independent effect, since median IA-2A binding increased by 23% (range 3% to 86%, p<0.001) when Tween-20 concentration was reduced from 1% to 0.15% in the absence of azide. We conclude that common assay reagents such as azide and Tween-20 can strongly influence IA-2A binding in an epitope-related manner, and their use may explain some of the differences between laboratories in IA-2A measurement.Journal of immunological methods 12/2009; 351(1-2):75-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2009.10.004 · 2.01 Impact Factor