Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems

Department of Physiological Science, UCLA, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Brain research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 06/2009; 1341:32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary omega-3 fatty acid (i.e. docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)) and exercise are gaining recognition for supporting brain function under normal and challenging conditions. Here we evaluate the possibility that the interaction of DHA and exercise can involve specific elements of the synaptic plasma membrane. We found that voluntary exercise potentiated the effects of a 12-day DHA dietary supplementation regimen on increasing the levels of syntaxin 3 (STX-3) and the growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the adult rat hippocampus region. STX-3 is a synaptic membrane-bound protein involved in the effects of DHA on membrane expansion. The DHA diet and exercise also elevated levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which is important for synaptic function underlying learning and memory. The actions of exercise and DHA dietary supplementation reflected on enhanced learning performance in the Morris water maze as learning ability was associated with higher levels of STX-3 and NR2B. The overall findings reveal a mechanism by which exercise can interact with the function of DHA dietary enrichment to elevate the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function.

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    • "That is, there was no evidence for an additive or multiplicative benefit of greater amounts of PA in combination with lower AA:DHA ratios on cognitive performance. Our second hypothesis, based on behavioral evidence from rodent studies (Chytrova et al., 2010), was that a high AA:DHA ratio would exacerbate the detrimental effects of physical inactivity on cognitive Fig. 1. AA:DHA ratio  kilocalories interaction with cognitive function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health.
    Neuropsychologia 07/2014; 59(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.04.018 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "However, there are several moderating factors that share characteristics with physical activity or have similar putative mechanisms or pathways underlying the effects that provide researchers with a theoretical platform to begin their investigation. Along these lines, pertinent moderators of the effects of physical activity on brain health include (1) genotypes, such as apolipoprotein E (APOE) [21], brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [22], and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) [23] because these genes influence molecular pathways thought to be regulated by physical activity and (2) dietary variables, such as omega- 3 fatty acids [24] that share molecular mechanisms and behavioral outcomes with physical activity. Although there are clearly other factors that are moderating the effects of physical activity on neural outcomes, we will focus this paper on these few moderators for which there is empirical support for their effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.
    Journal of aging research 12/2012; 2012:948981. DOI:10.1155/2012/948981
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    • "Since diet and exercise are routine, it could be postulate that their effect could be complementary. Thus, recent studies have demonstrated a synergism between diet and exercise [46]. Concerning the possible association of omega-3 and exercise effects, from the best of our knowledge, only Wu and colleagues [15] have systematically investigated this interaction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.
    Behavioural brain research 10/2012; 237C:283-289. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.09.048 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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