Health related quality of life in recurrent depression: A comparison with a general population sample

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 06/2009; 120(1-3):126-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.04.026
Source: PubMed


In the acute phase major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling disease. We compared HRQOL in patients with remitted MDD (rMDD) with a community sample and longitudinally assessed the relation between depressive symptoms and HRQOL in recurrently depressed patients.
We used 12-month data of patients from the Depression Evaluation Longitudinal Therapy Assessment (DELTA) study. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcome Short Form (SF-36). Remission was determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients' mean SF-36 scores were compared with those of an age- and sex-matched Dutch reference population. The longitudinal relation between levels of SF-36 and levels of depressive symptomatology was assessed with a repeated measures linear regression analysis using the mixed models module.
In patients with rMDD in the remitted phase, especially in women, both physical and mental HRQOL was lower than in a Dutch population sample. An increase in the level of depressive symptoms corresponded to a decrease in all scales of the SF-36.
Also in remitted rMDD patients, especially in women, HRQOL is lower than in the general population which emphasizes that also in this phase of recurrent depression HRQOL deserves attention. Furthermore, in patients with rMDD a higher depressive symptom severity level is associated with a lower HRQOL. These findings imply that residual symptoms should be treated aggressively and HRQOL enhancement therapies should be developed.

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Available from: Claudi L H Bockting, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "Emotional functions [24–26], energy and drive functioning [27–29], cognitive functions [30–32], employment [33–35], and relationship with the others [36–38] were the most common psychosocial problems emerging both in the literature and the patients' answers. The frequency of the appearance of PSDs was also comparatively identical. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients' reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals' PSDs are necessary.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:319634. DOI:10.1155/2014/319634 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, recent studies about psychosocial disability in depression disclosed that the disability, which is directly correlated with the severity of depression, chronically persisted, even in inter-episode or in remission periods [6,7]. Moreover, while depression affects individuals at any life stage, the incidence is the highest in middle age when a person must play important social and family roles [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of physical exercise as an augmentation to pharmacotherapy with antidepressants for depressive patients has been documented. However, to clarify the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression, it is necessary to distinguish the effect of the exercise itself from the effect of group dynamics. Furthermore, an objective measurement for estimation of the effect is needed. Previous reports adopted a series of group exercises as the exercise intervention and mainly psychometric instruments for the measurement of effectiveness. Therefore, this clinical study was done to examine the effectiveness of a single round of individual exercise on depressive symptoms by assessing the change in saliva free cortisol levels, which reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function that is disturbed in depressive patients. Eighteen medicated patients, who met the DSM-[unknown][unknown]-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, were examined for the change in saliva free cortisol levels and the change in subjective depressive symptoms before and after pedaling a bicycle ergometer for fifteen minutes. Within a month after the exercise session, participants conducted a non-exercise control session, which was sitting quietly at the same time of day as the exercise session. Depressed patients who participated in this study were in remission or in a mild depressive state. However, they suffered chronic depression and had a disturbed quality of life. The saliva free cortisol level and subjective depressive symptoms significantly decreased after the exercise session. Moreover, the changes in these variables were significantly, positively correlated. On the other hand, although the subjective depressive symptoms improved in the control session, the saliva free cortisol level did not change. For the first time in depressive patients, we were able to show a decrease in the saliva free cortisol level due to physical exercise, accompanied by the improvement of subjective depressive symptoms. This identified a possible influence of exercise on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in depression.These results suggest the utility of assessing the effect of physical exercise by saliva free cortisol levels in depressive patients who suffer from bio-psycho-social disability.
    BioPsychoSocial Medicine 12/2013; 7(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1751-0759-7-18
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    • "A higher depressive severity was associated with a lower quality of life. Ten Doesschate et al. argue that, even in depression in remission, attention is needed for the quality of life, and above that, residual symptoms must be treated aggressively to achieve a higher quality of life [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention which lacks the side-effects of medication and does not require the introspective ability necessary for most psychotherapies. Several cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to establish the effect of physical activity on prevention and remission of depressive illness. However, recent meta-analysis's of all RCTs in this area showed conflicting results. The objective of the present article is to describe the design of a RCT examining the effect of exercise on depressive patients. The EFFect Of Running Therapy on Depression in adults (EFFORT-D) is a RCT, studying the effectiveness of exercise therapy (running therapy (RT) or Nordic walking (NW)) on depression in adults, in addition to usual care. The study population consists of patients with depressive disorder, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) ≥ 14, recruited from specialised mental health care. The experimental group receives the exercise intervention besides treatment as usual, the control group receives treatment as usual. The intervention program is a group-based, 1 h session, two times a week for 6 months and of increasing intensity. The control group only performs low intensive non-aerobic exercises. Measurements are performed at inclusion and at 3,6 and 12 months.Primary outcome measure is reduction in depressive symptoms measured by the HRSD. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured using a sub maximal cycling test, biometric information is gathered and blood samples are collected for metabolic parameters. Also, co-morbidity with pain, anxiety and personality traits is studied, as well as quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Exercise in depression can be used as a standalone or as an add-on intervention. In specialised mental health care, chronic forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety or physical complaints and treatment resistance are common. An add-on strategy therefore seems the best choice. This is the first high quality large trial into the effectiveness of exercise as an add-on treatment for depression in adult patients in specialised mental health care. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1894.
    BMC Public Health 01/2012; 12(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-50 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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