Associations between components of the metabolic syndrome versus bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT The association of bone with the metabolic syndrome and its features, visceral fat accumulation or insulin resistance, remains unclear. We determined visceral and subcutaneous fat areas (V and S) by computed tomography on 187 men (28-83 years) and 125 postmenopausal women (46-82 years) with type 2 diabetes. Men whose V was 100 cm(2) or more had significantly lower urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen (p=0.005), higher femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (p=0.004), and lower prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) (p=0.04) than controls. Fat mass, V, S, and lean body mass positively correlated with FN-BMD in men and with lumbar (L) and FN-BMD in women. When adjusted for weight, these correlations became negative. Urinary C-peptide positively correlated with FN-BMD in both genders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, height, weight, L-BMD, duration of diabetes, and diabetes therapies identified V in men and urinary C-peptide in women as factors inversely associated with the presence of VFs [odds ratio (OR)=0.61 per SD increase, p=0.04, and OR=0.32, p=0.01, respectively]. These findings suggest that, of the components of the metabolic syndrome, body fat in gravity and hyperinsulinemia could increase FN-BMD in diabetic subjects. Visceral fat in men and hyperinsulinemia in women may protect against VFs independent of weight, L-BMD, diabetes duration, or therapies.
Article: Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South. The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits. The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(10):e7554. · 4.09 Impact Factor