Protective effect of isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside from Salicornia herbacea against oxidation-induced cell damage.
ABSTRACT Isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from Salicornia herbacea. The inhibitory effects of compound 1 on oxidative stress were evaluated in free-cellular and cellular systems. An increased concentration of compound 1 not only exhibited dose-dependent scavenging activities on the generation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and carbon-centered radicals, but also significantly decreased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. Further, antioxidative mechanisms by compound 1 were examined by measuring the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Compound 1 significantly elevated GSH level as well as expression levels of antioxidant enzymes which were closely related with amount of cellular ROS. In addition, it significantly inhibited oxidative damage of purified genomic DNA and suppressed activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a generator of potent oxidant (hypochlorous acid), in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated human myeloid cells. Therefore, these results suggested that compound 1 has a therapeutic effectiveness in prevention of ROS-induced cellular damage and is a candidate worthy of being developed as a potential natural antioxidant related to oxidative stress.