Tuberculosis after Solid-Organ Transplant: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Characteristics in the RESITRA (Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation) Cohort
ABSTRACT It is necessary to clarify the incidence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients as well as changes in the chronology, clinical presentation, and prognosis of the disease.
A total of 4388 SOT recipients were monitored prospectively at 16 transplant centers included in the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI). TB episodes were studied, and the incidence rate was calculated. Certain variables were analyzed, by Cox regression analysis, as potential risk factors for TB.
Among the 4388 SOT recipients, 21 cases of TB were reported (0.48%). The median duration of follow-up was 360 days (range, 0-720 days). The global incidence of TB was 512 cases per 10(5) patients per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 317-783), which was higher than that in the general population in Spain (18.9 cases per 10(5) inhabitants per year; relative risk [RR], 26.6). The highest incidence (2072 cases per 10(5) patients per year; 95% CI, 565-5306) was observed among lung transplant recipients (RR, 73.3). Of the TB cases, 95% occurred within the first year after transplant, and 76% were pulmonary forms. Crude mortality was 19.0%, and attributable mortality was 9.5%. Multivariate analysis identified recipient age (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and receipt of a lung transplant (RR, 5.6; 95%, 1.9-16.9) as independent risk factors.
TB incidence is increased among SOT recipients. The risk factors identified were age and receipt of a lung transplant. TB-attributable mortality (9.5%) is still high.
SourceAvailable from: Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Also, SOT patients have a 20- to 74-fold increase in the chance of developing TB compared to the general population. Here we evaluated the incidence of hepatotoxicity in SOT recipients on treatment for TB and determined risk factors for liver toxicity in these patients. Retrospective cohort conducted in a reference hospital for SOT in Southern Brazil. All SOT recipients who underwent TB treatment during the years 2000-2012 were considered for the study. A total of 69 patients were included in the study and 23 had liver toxicity (incidence 33.3%). Independent risk factors for hepatotoxicity were rifampin use at doses of ≥600 mg daily (P = .016; OR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.18-5.15) and lung transplantation (P = .017; OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.14-3.70). Kidney transplantation appeared as a protective factor (P = .036; OR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.96). Mortality was higher in the patients who had hepatotoxicity (43.5%), compared with those who did not (19.6%). In this study, the use of rifampin at doses of 600 mg daily or higher was found to be an independent risk factor for liver toxicity in SOT recipients. The importance of additional risk factors for hepatotoxicity, such as lung transplantation as well as the protective role of kidney transplantation, should be better investigated in SOT recipients being treated for TB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Transplantation Proceedings 12/2014; 46(10):3606-10. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.09.148 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB). The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of active TB infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-TNF therapy and to determine the results of their latent TB infection (LTBI) screening tests during the follow up. This is a retrospective observational study of IBD patients receiving anti-TNF therapy. Tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), and chest radiography were used to determine LTBI. Active TB infection rate during anti-TNF treatment was determined. Seventy-six IBD patients (25 with ulcerative colitis, 51 with Crohn's disease; 53 male; mean age 42.0±12.4 years) were included. Forty-four (57.9%) patients received infliximab and 32 (42.1%) adalimumab. Their median duration of anti-TNF therapy was 15 months. Forty-five (59.2%) patients had LTBI and received isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis. During the follow-up period, active TB was identified in 3 (4.7%) patients who were not receiving INH prophylaxis. There was a moderate concordance between the TST and the IGRA (kappa coefficient 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.76). Patients with or without immunosuppressive therapy did not differ significantly with respect to TST (P=0.318) and IGRA (P=0.157). IBD patients receiving anti-TNF therapy and prophylactic INH have a decreased risk of developing active TB infection. However, despite LTBI screening, the risk of developing active TB infection persists.Annals of Gastroenterology 04/2015; 28(2):241-246.