Specific IKKbeta inhibitor IV blocks Streptonigrin-induced NF-kappaB activity and potentiates its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Many anticancer agents activate NF-kappaB, which plays an important role in the survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity may therefore potentiate the efficacy of anticancer agents. We found that a previously used anticancer agent Streptonigrin (SN) was also a potent NF-kappaB inducer. Using a specific IKKbeta inhibitor IV (Podolin et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005; 312: 373-381), we revealed that the activation of NF-kappaB was mediated through DNA damage-induced activation of IKK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SN-induced DNA damage was unrelated to reactive oxygen species but to the hydroquinone form of SN converted by the NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1). The study suggests that the combination of SN with IKK inhibitor may improve efficacy over the use of single agent.
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ABSTRACT: Inducible activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibits the apoptotic response to chemotherapy and irradiation. Activation of NF-kappaB via phosphorylation of an inhibitor protein IkappaB leads to degradation of IkappaB through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We hypothesized that inactivation of proteasome function will inhibit inducible NF-kappaB activation, thereby increasing levels of apoptosis in response to chemotherapy and enhancing antitumor effects. To assess the effects of proteasome inhibition on chemotherapy response, human colorectal cancer cells were pretreated with the dipeptide boronic acid analogue PS-341 (1 microM) prior to exposure to SN-38, the active metabolite of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, CPT-11. Inducible activation of NF-kappaB and growth response were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Effects on p53, p21, p27 and apoptosis were determined. Pretreatment with PS-341 inhibited activation of NF-kappaB induced by SN-38 and resulted in a significantly higher level of growth inhibition (64-75%) compared with treatment with PS-341 alone (20-30%) or SN-38 alone (24-47%; P < 0.002). Combination therapy resulted in a 94% decrease in tumor size compared with the control group and significantly improved tumoricidal response to treatment compared with all treatment groups (P = 0.02). The level of apoptosis was 80-90% in the treatment group that received combination treatment compared with treatment with single agent alone (10%). Proteasome inhibition blocks chemotherapy-induced NF-kappaB activation, leading to a dramatic augmentation of chemosensitivity and enhanced apoptosis. Combining proteasome inhibition with chemotherapy has significant potential to overcome the high incidence of chemotherapy resistance. Clinical studies are currently in development to evaluate the role of proteasome inhibition as an important adjuvant to systemic chemotherapy.Cancer Research 05/2001; 61(9):3535-40. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) functions as an important part of cellular antioxidant defense by detoxifying quinones, thus preventing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of our study was to determine if NQO1 is elevated in pancreatic cancer specimens and pancreatic cancer cell lines and if so, would compounds previously demonstrated to redox cycle with NQO1 be effective in killing pancreatic cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry of resected pancreatic specimens demonstrated an increased immunoreactivity for NQO1 in pancreatic cancer and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) specimens versus normal human pancreas. Immunocytochemistry and Western immunoblots demonstrated increased immunoreactivity in pancreatic cancer cells when compared to a near normal immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line and a colonic epithelial cell line. Streptonigrin, a compound known to cause redox cycling in the presence of NQO1, decreased clonogenic survival and decreased anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Streptonigrin had little effect on cell lines with absent or reduced levels of NQO1. The effects of streptonigrin were reversed in pancreatic cancer cells pretreated with dicumarol, a known inhibitor of NQO1. NQO1 may be a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer where survival is measured in months.Molecular Carcinogenesis 09/2005; 43(4):215-24. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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