APOC3 Mutation, Serum Triglyceride Concentrations, and Coronary Heart Disease

Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Clinical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 7.77). 06/2009; 55(7):1274-6. DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2009.124669
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster is closely involved in lipid metabolism, and its polymorphisms have been associated with coronary heart disease and lipid plasma levels. Here, we aimed to investigate associations of APOC3 (3238C>G, −482C>T, 1100C>T) and APOA4 (Gln360His, Thr347Ser) polymorphisms in 382 individuals from a cohort of a Longitudinal Brazilian Elderly Study with major age-related morbidities and with lipid and protein serum levels. Materials and Methods: The whole sample was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, Student t test, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg, Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and haplotype analyses were performed. Results: Although APOC3 1100T allele carriers presented lower triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein levels than non-T carriers, these associations disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P > 0.05). Moreover, APOA4 360His allele was associated with depression (P = 0.03), increased triglyceride (P = 0.035) and very low density lipoprotein (P = 0.035) levels, and reduced HDL levels (P = 0.0005). Haplotype analyses found an association between His/C/C haplotype (Gln360His/−482C>T/1100C>T) with depression, but this result was due to Gln360His polymorphism. Conclusions: Our data suggest that 360His allele might be a risk factor for depression and unfavorable lipid profile and depression for elderly people in the Brazilian population.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 07/2011; 59(6):966-970. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, not all obese subjects develop the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms that induce dyslipidemia in obese subjects. Stable isotope tracers were used to elucidate the pathophysiology of the dyslipidemia in hypertriglyceridemic (n=14) and normotriglyceridemic (n=14) obese men (with comparable body mass index and visceral fat volume) and in normotriglyceridemic nonobese men (n=10). Liver fat was determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Serum triglycerides in obese subjects were increased by the combination of increased secretion and severely impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich very-low-density lipoprotein(1) particles. Furthermore, increased liver and subcutaneous abdominal fat were linked to increased secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein 1 particles, whereas increased plasma levels of apolipoprotein C-III were associated with impaired clearance in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Dual metabolic defects are required to produce hypertriglyceridemia in obese subjects with similar levels of visceral adiposity. The results emphasize the clinical importance of assessing hypertriglyceridemic waist in obese subjects to identify subjects at high cardiometabolic risk.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2011; 31(9):2144-50. DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.224808 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.
    Current Cardiology Reports 09/2013; 15(9):400. DOI:10.1007/s11886-013-0400-4

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