An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste. Waste Manage (Oxford)

Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.
Waste Management (Impact Factor: 3.22). 06/2009; 29(8):2289-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.031
Source: PubMed


This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.


Available from: Phil Longhurst, Nov 19, 2014
    • "Garg et al. (2009) and Cimpan and Wenzel (2013) have added evidence of the fact that SRF co-combustion in cement kilns yields favourable results compared to other energy recovery pathways. In particular Garg et al. (2009) used energy and mass flow measurements , a semi-quantitative risk analysis, an environmental assessment and a financial assessment to demonstrate that SRF cocombustion with coal in cement kilns is the optimal among four different co-combustion scenarios. The low technological risks and the good experience of cement kiln operators in handling waste derived fuels were also mentioned as favourable conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix.
    Waste Management 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.10.017 · 3.22 Impact Factor
    • "Essentially SRF is a heterogeneous product processed into homogenous mixture where an understanding of the composition and energy potential would present a number of benefits such as customer confidence, operator control and process monitoring. SRF being a low emission fuel produced by mechanical biological treatment (MBT) from MSW has high biomass fraction and also available at much lower cost or zero cost, has a significant potential as an alternate to conventional fossil fuel (Cozens, 2004; Garg et al., 2009; Velis et al., 2012). In Europe the demand for SRF and its standardization is increasing, with a European standard method in place (European Committee for Standardisation, 2006a). "
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental study was completed using a previously developed and innovative image analysis approach, which has been applied here to shredded waste materials representative of waste-derived fuels. Waste components were collected from source-segregated recycling containers and shredded to <150mm. These materials were then used to produce 3× samples of different composition. The samples were spread to represent materials on a conveyor belt, and multiple images of each sample were captured using 10×10cm and 20×20cm quadrats. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine software to determine the area covered by each waste component. This coverage was converted into a mass using density data determined as part of this study, yielding a determined composition which was then compared with the known composition of the samples. The image analysis results indicated a strong correlation with the actual values (mean r=0.89). The area coverage of the sample (10×10cm or 20×20cm) contributes to the accuracy as the dot-grid approach used with the particle size within the samples may result in components not being sufficiently monitored. This manuscript presents initial results of the application of an adapted innovative image-based method, and critically assesses how the technique could be improved and developed in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Waste Management 03/2015; 40. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.03.015 · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    • "MBM is used as fuel in cement industry to ensure that any living organism is thermally destroyed and its energy potential is utilized [9]. The chemical breakdown of coal and selected alternative fuels has been collected from the literature [10] [11] [12] "
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    ABSTRACT: Cement manufacturing is an energy intensive and heavy pollutant emissions process. It is accountable for CO2, NOX, SO2 emissions and some heavy metal discharge from the manufacturing process which causes severe greenhouse effects. Waste derived alternative fuels are widely used for substituting the thermal energy requirement from fossil fuels and reducing the pollutant emission. In the current study, a process model of the preheater tower is developed using Aspen Plus simulation software based on the combustion mechanism. Preheater tower is part of the modern energy efficient cement plant which is responsible for most of the CO2 release as the calcination of the raw material occurs at high temperature in this section. The model is verified against measured data from industry and data available in the literature. This paper presents the effects of the flow rate of waste derived fuels on the energy efficiency and emission from the preheater tower. Three different waste derived fuels, namely tyre derived fuel, meat and bone meal and refuse derived fuel are considered for this study. Fixed substitution rate of conventional fuel by the alternative one has been considered to identify the differences among the selected alternative fuels. Results show that maximum 3% increase of energy efficiency and 2.5% reduction of CO2 can be achieved by using tyre for about 25% of thermal energy requirement. Simulation results presented in this paper offer a guideline for implementing selected waste derived fuels in cement industry.
    Energy Procedia 12/2014; 61:922-927. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.996
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