Article

# An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.
(Impact Factor: 3.16). 06/2009; 29(8):2289-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.03.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

### Full-text

Available from: Phil Longhurst, Nov 19, 2014
0 Bookmarks
·
112 Views
• Source
##### Chapter: Assessment of the impact of using alternative fuels in a cement kiln on the emissions of selected substances into the air
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The chapter presents the results of analyses concerning the impact of using alternative fuels in one of the Polish cement plants on the volume of continuously measured emissions into the air for the following substances: carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), gaseous and volatile organic compounds expressed as total organic carbon (TOC), and total dust. The analyses covered a 15-month period of the operation of a dry cement kiln, approximately 100m-long, equipped with four-stage cyclone exchangers and a calciner, constituting an additional chamber for waste co-combustion. The results obtained confirmed the lack of a significant impact of the volume of combusted alternative fuels on the emissions of examined air pollutants. In particular, the lack of linear correlations between the amounts of chlorine and sulphur brought in with alternative fuels and the amounts of HCl and SO2 emissions was observed.
Waste to Energy and Environment, Edited by J.W. Wandrasz, K. Pikoń, Z. Czekalska, 01/2010: pages 37-49; Department of Technologies and Installations for Waste Management Silesian University of Technology., ISBN: 978-83-930232-0-2
• ##### Article: Aspen Plus Based Simulation for Energy Recovery from Waste to Utilize in Cement Plant Preheater Tower
Energy Procedia 01/2014; 61:922-927. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.996
• Source
##### Chapter: Współspalanie odpadów w suchym piecu cementowym a emisja dwutlenku siarki i chlorowodoru
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The paper presents an assessment of the impact of waste co-combustion in a cement kiln on air emissions of HCl and SO2 recorded continuously. The subject of the research was cement kiln (dry method) with a capacity of 8500 Mg/day, equipped with a four cyclone heat exchangers and a calciner with an additional chamber for co-incineration. In the analysed period alternative fuels (mainly waste) were used in various amounts ranging up to about 35 kg / Mg clinker (with the heat substitution up to 20%) in the kiln and calciner. Chlorine and sulfur inputs to the process were up to 0.21 and 0.24 kg/Mg clinker, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of waste quantities and input rates of chlorine and sulfur (introduced with alternative and conventional fuels) on air emission of HCl and SO2 from the cement kiln. English title: Waste co-combustion in dry cement kiln and emission of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride.
Współczesne osiągnięcia w ochronie powietrza atmosferycznego, Edited by A. Musialik-Piotrowska, J.D. Rutkowski, 06/2010: pages 283-292; Wyd. PZITS, nr 893, Wrocław., ISBN: ISBN 978-83-921167-9-0