An interaction between DAT1 and having an alcoholic father predicts serious alcohol problems in a sample of males

Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0389, USA.
Drug and alcohol dependence (Impact Factor: 3.28). 06/2009; 104(1-2):17-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.01.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current study examines whether the dopamine transporter (DAT1) VNTR polymorphism and paternal alcoholism are related to serious alcohol problems. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we found that the DAT1 polymorphism interacted with paternal alcoholism to predict serious alcohol problems among males. Specifically, the 10-repeat allele conferred an increase of alcohol problems only among males who also had an alcoholic father; the 10-repeat allele was unrelated to alcohol problems for males without an alcoholic father. Coefficient tests revealed that this interaction effect was stronger among African-American males. Females who possessed the 9-repeat allele were more likely to report serious alcohol problems, but this effect was not moderated by paternal alcoholism. These analyses suggest that additive and interactive effects of DAT1 and paternal alcoholism may operate differently across genders and races.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Though stressful life events appear to impact the likelihood and frequency of substance use among adolescents, these effects are often varied and inconsistent. We suggest that the polymorphic MAOA gene may be partially responsible for variable susceptibility to environmental pressures and substance use. More specifically, we hypothesize that adolescents possessing low activity alleles for the MAOA genotype are more likely to respond to stressful life experiences by initiating substance use. Methods The genetic subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was analyzed (2,574 adolescents) using logistic regression models for each gender. Respondents’ self-reports of eight key stressors were used to create a composite life stress scale which was allowed to interact with a variable that represented the number of low activity MAOA alleles. Results For males, a significant interaction emerged between stressful life experiences and the MAOA gene for alcohol (p = .029) and marijuana (p = .039) initiation. For females, the interaction was not significant in each model. Conclusions MAOA interacts with life stress to increase the likelihood of substance use initiation for males. Those with a low activity MAOA allele are more likely to initiate substance use than those with a high activity allele when exposed to stressful experiences.
    Journal of Criminal Justice 09/2013; 41(5):357–363. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2013.06.003 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Between 1998-2009 South Korea experienced significant progress in reducing the male smoking rate from 66.3% to 46.9%. As part of a significant government effort in the area of smoking cessation intervention, the Korean government implemented the national "Smoking Cessation Clinics (SCC)" program in 2004. Materials and Methods: Data covered 804,334 adult male smokers participating in SCC program at 253 public health centers between 2006-2009. We examined participant cessation rates with the SCC program, their characteristics and program intervention components using health insurance status as a socioeconomic status (SES) indicator. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed correcting for intra-class correlations within public health centers. Results: The overall 6-month quit rate was high (46.8%). Higher odds of smoking cessation were positively associated with higher levels of behavioral counseling sessions, but not nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Cessation rates were lower for Medicaid participants than for regular health insurance participants. Disadvantaged younger smokers were less likely to participate in the program. Older smokers were more likely to quit regardless of SES. Stress was cited as major reason for failure. Conclusions: SES inequalities across different age groups exist in smoking cessation among Korean adult male smokers. There is a need for intervention programs specifically targeting sub-populations of SES by different age groups.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2013; 14(11). · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stressful life events can impact both substance use initiation and the quantity of substances consumed by adolescents; however, the effect of stress on substance use may be contingent on other factors including social support, peers, and genotype. DAT1, a polymorphic dopamine transporter gene, is one such factor that may be responsible for differential susceptibility to cumulative life pressures. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were utilized to determine whether adolescents with the 10-repeat allele are more likely to respond to life stresses by engaging in alcohol use than those without the allele. Respondents’ self-reports of key stressors were used to create a composite life stress scale. The interaction of this measure with the number of 10-repeat DAT1 alleles was evaluated in series of logistic regression models. A significant interaction emerged between stressful life experiences and DAT1 for alcohol use among females, but this pattern was not seen in males. Females with the 10-repeat allele appear to be more sensitive to life stress as compared to those without the allele. It appears that variation in the DAT1 gene may help explain why some women are more likely to consume alcohol when confronted with stress. It, however, does not appear to condition the reaction of men, in terms of alcohol use, to stress.
    Criminal Justice Studies 01/2015; 28(1). DOI:10.1080/1478601X.2014.1000003