Article

Implantable diagnostic device for cancer monitoring

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Biosensors & Bioelectronics (Impact Factor: 6.45). 05/2009; 24(11):3252-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2009.04.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Biopsies provide required information to diagnose cancer but, because of their invasiveness, they are difficult to use for managing cancer therapy. The ability to repeatedly sample the local environment for tumor biomarker, chemotherapeutic agent, and tumor metabolite concentrations could improve early detection of metastasis and personalized therapy. Here we describe an implantable diagnostic device that senses the local in vivo environment. This device, which could be left behind during biopsy, uses a semi-permeable membrane to contain nanoparticle magnetic relaxation switches. A cell line secreting a model cancer biomarker produced ectopic tumors in mice. The transverse relaxation time (T(2)) of devices in tumor-bearing mice was 20+/-10% lower than devices in control mice after 1 day by magnetic resonance imaging (p<0.01). Short term applications for this device are numerous, including verification of successful tumor resection. This may represent the first continuous monitoring device for soluble cancer biomarkers in vivo.

Full-text

Available from: Michael J. Cima, Apr 20, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
139 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Implantable and wearable medical devices (IWMDs) are commonly used for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating various medical conditions. A general trend in these medical devices is toward increased functional complexity, software programmability, and connectivity to body area networks (BANs). However, as IWMDs become more “intelligent,” they also become less trustworthy—less reliable and more prone to attacks. Various shortcomings—hardware failures, software errors, wireless attacks, malware and software exploits, and side-channel attacks—could undermine the trustworthiness of IWMDs and BANs. While these concerns have been recognized for some time, recent demonstrations of security attacks on commercial products, e.g., pacemakers and insulin pumps, have elevated medical device security from the realm of theoretical possibility to an immediate concern. The trustworthiness of IWMDs must be addressed aggressively and proactively due to the potential for catastrophic consequences. Conventional fault tolerance and information security solutions, e.g., redundancy and cryptography, that have been employed in general-purpose and embedded computing systems cannot be applied to many IWMDs due to their extreme size and power constraints and unique usage models. While several recent efforts address defense of IWMDs against specific security attacks, a holistic strategy that considers all concerns and types of threats is required. This paper discusses trustworthiness concerns in IWMDs and BANs through a comprehensive identification and analysis of potential threats and, for each threat, provides a discussion of the merits and inadequacies of current solutions.
    Proceedings of the IEEE 08/2014; 102(8):1174-1188. DOI:10.1109/JPROC.2014.2322103 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vivo sensors are an emerging field with the potential to revolutionize our understanding of basic biology and our treatment of disease. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the fields of in vivo electrochemical, optical, and magnetic resonance biosensors with a focus on recent developments that have been validated in rodent models or human subjects. In addition, we discuss major challenges in the development and translation of in vivo biosensors and present potential solutions to these problems. The field of nanotechnology, in particular, has recently been instrumental in driving the field of in vivo sensors forward. We conclude with a discussion of emerging paradigms and techniques for the development of future biosensors.
    Theranostics 01/2013; 3(8):583-94. DOI:10.7150/thno.6584 · 7.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is a growing need for diagnostic technologies that provide laboratories with solutions that improve quality, enhance laboratory system productivity, and provide accurate detection of a broad range of infectious diseases and cancers. Recent advances in micro- and nanoscience and engineering, in particular in the areas of particles and microfluidic technologies, have advanced the “lab-on-a-chip” concept towards the development of a new generation of point-of-care diagnostic devices that could significantly enhance test sensitivity and speed. In this review, we will discuss many of the recent advances in microfluidics and particle technologies with an eye towards merging these two technologies for application in medical diagnostics. Although the potential diagnostic applications are virtually unlimited, the most important applications are foreseen in the areas of biomarker research, cancer diagnosis, and detection of infectious microorganisms. Figure There is a growing need for diagnostic technologies that provide laboratories with solutions that improve quality, enhance laboratory system productivity, and provide accurate detection of a broad range of infectious diseases and cancers. In this review, we will discuss many of the recent advances in microfluidics and particle technologies with an eye towards merging these two technologies for application in medical diagnostics such as microfluidic device to monitor molecular secretions in real-time as demonstrated in this figure.
    Microchimica Acta 02/2012; 176(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s00604-011-0705-1 · 3.72 Impact Factor