Thiazolides: a new class of antiviral drugs.
ABSTRACT Thiazolides have emerged as a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, and the first thiazolide, nitazoxanide, is in late-stage clinical trials for treating chronic hepatitis C.
To review the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and efficacy of thiazolides as antiviral agents with emphasis on clinical development of nitazoxanide in treating chronic hepatitis C.
Literature search, information from Romark Laboratories and my personal experience with the discovery and development of thiazolides serve as the sources for this review.
Thiazolides are metabolically stable, highly bound to plasma proteins and are associated with a favorable toxicology profile. Phase II clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide added to peginterferon with or without ribavirin in treating patients with chronic hepatitis C. More limited clinical data indicated potential in treating chronic hepatitis B, and three randomized controlled trials have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the duration of viral gastroenteritis. New generation thiazolides with the nitro group of nitazoxanide replaced by a non-reducible group are not active against anaerobes but retain broad-spectrum activity against viruses. Further studies are needed. Research indicates that these drugs may play an important and complementary role in combination with other classes of antiviral drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has a significant impact on public health. An estimated three billion people in 'at-risk' regions remain unvaccinated and the number of unvaccinated individuals in certain Asian countries is increasing. Consequently, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic agents against Japanese encephalitis. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a thiazolide anti-infective licensed for the treatment of parasitic gastroenteritis. Recently, NTZ has been demonstrated to have antiviral properties. In this study, the anti-JEV activity of NTZ was evaluated in cultured cells and in a mouse model. JEV-infected cells were treated with NTZ at different concentrations. The replication of JEV in the mock- and NTZ-treated cells was examined by virus titration. NTZ was administered at different time points of JEV infection to determine the stage at which NTZ affected JEV replication. Mice were infected with a lethal dose of JEV and intragastrically administered with NTZ from 1 day post-infection. The protective effect of NTZ on the JEV-infected mice was evaluated. NTZ significantly inhibited the replication of JEV in cultured cells in a dose dependent manner with 50% effective concentration value of 0.12 +/- 0.04 mug/ml, a non-toxic concentration in cultured cells (50% cytotoxic concentration = 18.59 +/- 0.31 mug/ml). The chemotherapeutic index calculated was 154.92. The viral yields of the NTZ-treated cells were significantly reduced at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post-infection compared with the mock-treated cells. NTZ was found to exert its anti-JEV effect at the early-mid stage of viral infection. The anti-JEV effect of NTZ was also demonstrated in vivo, where 90% of mice that were treated by daily intragastric administration of 100 mg/kg/day of NTZ were protected from a lethal challenge dose of JEV. Both in vitro and in vivo data indicated that NTZ has anti-JEV activity, suggesting the potential application of NTZ in the treatment of Japanese encephalitis.Virology Journal 01/2014; 11(1):10. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 12/2014;
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 54:4119-4132. · 5.48 Impact Factor