Recent patents regarding the discovery of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists.
ABSTRACT The chemokine receptors, CCR(5) and CXCR(4), are the primary co-receptors responsible for mediating HIV-1 cell entry. Small molecules that antagonize these receptors utilize a fundamentally different approach for controlling viral replication than most other classes of antiretroviral agents in that they act on host cell factors rather than viral enzymes. Although CCR(5) modulators that demonstrate efficacy in the clinic against HIV have now become available, CXCR(4) antagonist development is at present at a more nascent stage. Due to the ability of HIV to switch between CCR(5) and CXCR(4) entry co-receptors, the development of a CXCR(4) antagonist is probably critical to prolonging the effectiveness of HIV therapies in patients. In addition, CXCR(4) antagonists represent a novel class of drugs that could be used for the treatment of diseases other than HIV/AIDS.
An overview of the most pertinent chemical classes that modulate the CXCR(4) receptor, in addition to discussions of lead compound development.
The review primarily covers patents and patent application publications filed in the past 8 years. However, earlier patents are included to provide a historical context.
The early bicyclam class proved untenable for HIV treatment due to cardiotoxicity and lack of desirable pharmacokinetic properties. Second generation bicyclam mimics have the benefit of oral bioavailability but have, as yet, not proven successful in the clinic. The peptidomimetic analogues discussed capitalize on known receptor binding site interactions, which could lead to the development of potent and orally available CXCR(4) antagonists.
- SourceAvailable from: Sridhar Nimmagadda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions play diverse roles in cell migration and homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells co-opt chemokine networks for survival, proliferation, immune evasion, and metastasis. Most of the chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in tumor progression. Given their extensive implication in cancer progression, several chemokine receptor/ligand axes are considered as potential therapeutic targets. This review provides a survey of chemokine receptor expression in cancer and evaluates the potential of chemokine receptor imaging as a tool for molecular characterization of cancer.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2012; 2:46.
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ABSTRACT: The chemokine CXCL12 and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) CXCR4 are high-priority clinical targets because of their involvement in metastatic cancers (also implicated in autoimmune disease and cardiovascular disease). Because chemokines interact with two distinct sites to bind and activate their receptors, both the GPCRs and chemokines are potential targets for small molecule inhibition. A number of chemokines have been validated as targets for drug development, but virtually all drug discovery efforts focus on the GPCRs. However, all CXCR4 receptor antagonists with the exception of MSX-122 have failed in clinical trials due to unmanageable toxicities, emphasizing the need for alternative strategies to interfere with CXCL12/CXCR4-guided metastatic homing. Although targeting the relatively featureless surface of CXCL12 was presumed to be challenging, focusing efforts at the sulfotyrosine (sY) binding pockets proved successful for procuring initial hits. Using a hybrid structure-based in silico/NMR screening strategy, we recently identified a ligand that occludes the receptor recognition site. From this initial hit, we designed a small fragment library containing only nine tetrazole derivatives using a fragment-based and bioisostere approach to target the sY binding sites of CXCL12. Compound binding modes and affinities were studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, molecular docking and cell-based functional assays. Our results demonstrate that the sY binding sites are conducive to the development of high affinity inhibitors with better ligand efficiency (LE) than typical protein-protein interaction inhibitors (LE ≤ 0.24). Our novel tetrazole-based fragment 18 was identified to bind the sY21 site with a Kd of 24 M (LE = 0.30). Optimization of 18 yielded compound 25 which specifically inhibits CXCL12-induced migration with an improvement in potency over the initial hit 9. The fragment from this library that exhibited the highest affinity and ligand efficiency (11: Kd = 13 M, LE = 0.33) may serve as a starting point for development of inhibitors targeting the sY12 site.Current topics in medicinal chemistry 01/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of novel peptide and peptidomimetic ligands for the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection, cancer, and immune system diseases has grown over the last decade. In this perspective article, the design of CXCR4 agonists and antagonists from endogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 and horseshoe crab-derived antimicrobial peptides and their therapeutic and diagnostic applications are described.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 04/2012; 10(30):5720-31. · 3.57 Impact Factor