The multiple actions of U18666A have enabled major discoveries in lipid research and contributed to understanding the pathophysiology of multiple diseases. This review describes these advances and the utility of U18666A as a tool in lipid research. Harry Rudney's recognition that U18666A inhibited oxidosqualene cyclase led him to discover a pathway for formation of polar sterols that he proved to be important regulators of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Laura Liscum's recognition that U18666A inhibited the egress of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes led to greatly improved perspective on the major pathways of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. The inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by U18666A mimicked the loss of functional Niemann-Pick type C protein responsible for NPC disease and thus provided a model for this disorder. U18666A subsequently became a tool for assessing the importance of molecular trafficking through the lysosomal pathway in other conditions such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and prion infections. U18666A also provided animal models for two important disorders: petite mal (absence) epilepsy and cataracts. This was the first chronic model of absence epilepsy. U18666A is also being used to address the role of oxidative stress in apoptosis. How can one molecule have so many effects? Perhaps because of its structure as an amphipathic cationic amine it can interact and inhibit diverse proteins. Restricting the availability of cholesterol for membrane formation through inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and intracellular trafficking could also be a mechanism for broadly affecting many processes. Another possibility is that through intercalation into membrane U18666A can alter membrane order and therefore the function of resident proteins. The similarity of the effects of natural and enantiomeric U18666A on cells and the capacity of intercalated U18666A to increase membrane order are arguments in favor of this possibility.
"Recently, it was proposed that IFITM proteins might impede viral entry by increasing the cholesterol levels in the endosomal compartment . To investigate this possibility, we tested whether U18666A, a compound which increases endosomal cholesterol , inhibits influenza A virus entry. Inhibition of PR8-NS1-Gluc infection by U18666A was observed at all concentrations tested. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reporter genes inserted into viral genomes enable the easy and rapid quantification of virus replication, which is instrumental to efficient in vitro screening of antiviral compounds or in vivo analysis of viral spread and pathogenesis. Based on a published design, we have generated several replication competent influenza A viruses carrying either fluorescent proteins or Gaussia luciferase. Reporter activity could be readily quantified in infected cultures, but the virus encoding Gaussia luciferase was more stable than viruses bearing fluorescent proteins and was therefore analyzed in detail. Quantification of Gaussia luciferase activity in the supernatants of infected culture allowed the convenient and highly sensitive detection of viral spread, and enzymatic activity correlated with the number of infectious particles released from infected cells. Furthermore, the Gaussia luciferase encoding virus allowed the sensitive quantification of the antiviral activity of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) zanamivir and the host cell interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins 1-3, which are known to inhibit influenza virus entry. Finally, the virus was used to demonstrate that influenza A virus infection is sensitive to a modulator of endosomal cholesterol, in keeping with the concept that IFITMs inhibit viral entry by altering cholesterol levels in the endosomal membrane. In sum, we report the characterization of a novel influenza A reporter virus, which allows fast and sensitive detection of viral spread and its inhibition, and we show that influenza A virus entry is sensitive to alterations of endosomal cholesterol levels.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97695. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097695 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"However, we cannot rule out that U18666a is having effects other than on NPC1, which may account for this difference. For example, U18666a is known to inhibit sterol synthesis , which could exacerbate the cholesterol trafficking defects observed in U18666a treated cells (Figure 2A). However, considering that cholesterol trafficking defects and IRS1 levels appear to correlate it may be that cholesterol-rich caveolae, within which IR resides , were disrupted by U18666a treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) gene encodes a transmembrane protein involved in cholesterol efflux from the lysosome. SNPs within NPC1 have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and mice heterozygous or null for NPC1 are insulin resistant. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning this association is currently undefined. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting NPC1 function on insulin action in adipocytes. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NPC1 impaired insulin action. This impairment was evident at the level of insulin signalling and insulin-mediated glucose transport in the short term and decreased GLUT4 expression due to reduced liver X receptor (LXR) transcriptional activity in the long-term. These data show that cholesterol homeostasis through NPC1 plays a crucial role in maintaining insulin action at multiple levels in adipocytes.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095598 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In many ways, U18666A-induced lipid traffic breakdown mimics Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a hereditary lysosomal storage disease (see review ). The ability of U18666A and other cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) to induce accumulation of lysosomal nonesterified cholesterol is well documented      . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes/microvesicles are originated from multivesicular bodies that allow the secretion of endolysosome components out of the cell. In the present work, we investigated the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol, on exosomes/microvesicles secretion in different cells lines, using U18666A as a model of intracellular cholesterol trafficking impairment.
In both HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells and THP-1 differentiated macrophages, treatment with curcumin affected the size and the localization of endosome/lysosomes accumulated by U18666A, and reduced the cholesterol cell content. To ascertain the mechanism, we analyzed the incubation medium. Curcumin stimulated the release of cholesterol and the lysosomal β-hexosaminidase enzyme, as well as the exosome markers, flotillin-2 and CD63. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated the presence of small vesicles similar to exosomes/microvesicles in the secretion fluid. These vesicles harbored CD63 on their surface, indicative of their endolysosomal origin. These effects of curcumin were particularly intense in cells treated with U18666A.
These findings indicate that curcumin ameliorates the U18666A-induced endolysosomal cholesterol accumulation by shuttling cholesterol and presumably other lipids out of the cell via exosomes/microvesicles secretion. This action may contribute to the potential of curcumin in the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases.
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