Exposure to Bisphenol A and Other Phenols in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Premature Infants

Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 05/2009; 117(4):639-44. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0800265
Source: PubMed


We previously demonstrated that exposure to polyvinyl chloride plastic medical devices containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with higher urinary concentrations of several DEHP metabolites in 54 premature infants in two neonatal intensive care units than in the general population. For 42 of these infants, we evaluated urinary concentrations of several phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), in association with the use of the same medical devices.
We measured the urinary concentrations of free and total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA, triclosan, benzophenone-3, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben.
The percentage of BPA present as its conjugated species was > 90% in more than three-quarters of the premature infants. Intensity of use of products containing DEHP was strongly associated with BPA total concentrations but not with any other phenol. Adjusting for institution and sex, BPA total concentrations among infants in the group of high use of DEHP-containing products were 8.75 times as high as among infants in the low use group (p < 0.0001). Similarly, after adjusting for sex and DEHP-containing product use category, BPA total concentrations among infants in Institution A were 16.6 times as high as those among infants in Institution B (p < 0.0001).
BPA geometric mean urinary concentration (30.3 microg/L) among premature infants undergoing intensive therapeutic medical interventions was one order of magnitude higher than that among the general population. Conjugated species were the primary urinary metabolites of BPA, suggesting that premature infants have some capacity to metabolize BPA. The differences in exposure to BPA by intensity of use of DEHP-containing medical products highlight the need for further studies to determine the specific source(s) of exposure to BPA.

Download full-text


Available from: Jennifer Weuve, May 17, 2014
31 Reads
  • Source
    • "In 2003, more than 6 billion pounds of BPA were produced worldwide [5], and production is expected to exceed 5.4 million tons this year (for detailed international market analysis, see Bisphenol A (BPA): 2015 World Market Outlook and Forecast up to 2019 from The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that over 1 million pounds of BPA leaches into the environment each year and over 90% of tested humans have detectable BPA in their systems with the highest levels found in infants and children [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. BPA is an estrogenic compound [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of "carcinogen" put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties.
    Reproductive Toxicology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.09.006 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "We observed changes in cardiac conduction beginning at 0.1 μM BPA. This concentration is within the range of previously reported human urinary concentrations (0.024–8.5 μM; Table 1) and is within the upper limit of measured human serum levels (0.001–0.3 μM) in high-risk populations (Calafat et al. 2009; Kaddar et al. 2009; Lee et al. 2008; Padmanabhan et al. 2008; Schönfelder et al. 2002; Vandenberg et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2012). Such concentrations may be present in individuals chronically exposed to high levels of BPA (i.e., industrial workers) and those with reduced metabolic capacities (i.e., fetuses and infants). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are widely used in everyday products, such as food and beverage containers, toys and medical devices. Human biomonitoring studies have suggested that a large proportion of the population may be exposed to BPA. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between increased BPA urinary concentrations and cardiovascular disease; yet the direct effects of BPA on the heart are unknown. The goal of our studies was to measure BPA's effect (0.1-100 μM) on cardiac impulse propagation ex vivo, using excised whole hearts from adult rats. We measured atrial and ventricular activation times during sinus and paced rhythms using epicardial electrodes and optical mapping of transmembrane potential. Atrioventricular activation intervals and epicardial conduction velocities were computed using recorded activation times. Cardiac BPA exposure resulted in prolonged PR segment and decreased epicardial conduction velocity (0.1 - 100 μM), prolonged action potential duration (1 - 100 μM) and delayed atrioventricular conduction (10 - 100 μM). Importantly, these effects were observed after acute exposure (≤ 15 min), underscoring the potential detrimental effects of continuous BPA exposure. The highest BPA concentration used (100 μM) resulted in prolonged QRS intervals, dropped ventricular beats and eventually resulted in complete heart block. Our results show that acute BPA exposure slows electrical conduction in excised hearts from female rats. These findings emphasize the importance of examining BPA's effect on heart electrophysiology and determining whether chronic in vivo exposure can cause/exacerbate conduction abnormalities in patients with pre-existing heart conditions and other high-risk populations.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2014; 122(4). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206157 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Methylparaben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP), the two most commonly used parabens (Soni et al. 2005), were detected in > 92% of a representative sample of the U.S. population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), whereas butyl paraben (BP) was detected in 47% of participants (Calafat et al. 2010). Parabens have been detected in urine samples collected from infants (Calafat et al. 2009) and older children (Calafat et al. 2010; Casas et al. 2011; Wolff et al. 2010), in adults of reproductive age and older (Calafat et al. 2010; Meeker et al. 2011), and in pregnant women (Casas et al. 2011; Philippat et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2012), suggesting that exposure to parabens is ubiquitous and may begin in early life and extend throughout the lifespan. Parabens are suspected endocrine disruptors ; they are estrogenic (Golden et al. 2005; Routledge et al. 1998; Soni et al. 2005), although they have a lower estrogen receptor binding affinity than does endogenous estrogen (Routledge et al. 1998; Vo et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parabens are preservatives commonly used in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods. There is documented widespread human exposure to parabens, and some experimental data suggesting they act as estrogenic endocrine disruptors. As far as we are aware, no epidemiologic studies have assessed female reproductive health effects in relation to paraben exposure. Evaluate the association of urinary paraben concentrations with markers of ovarian reserve in a prospective cohort study of women seeking fertility treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Measures of ovarian reserve were day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC), and ovarian volume. In spot urine samples, collected prior to the assessment of outcome measures, we measured paraben concentrations (methyl-(MP), propyl-(PP), and butyl-paraben (BP)). We used linear and Poisson regression models to estimate associations of urinary paraben concentrations (in tertiles) with ovarian reserve measures. 192 women enrolled in 2004-2010 had at least one ovarian reserve outcome measured (mean age ±SD =36.1 ±4.5, range=21.0-46.7 years). MP and PP were detected in >99% of urine samples, and BP in >75%. There was a suggestive trend of lower AFC with increasing urinary PP tertiles (mean % change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3, compared to tertile 1, respectively, were: -5.0 (-23.7, 18.4) and -16.3 (-30.8, 1.3), trend p-value=0.07) as well as higher day 3 FSH with higher urinary PP tertiles (mean change (95% CI) for tertiles 2 and 3, compared to tertile 1, were: 1.16 IU/L (-0.26, 2.57) and 1.02 IU/L (-0.40, 2.43), trend p-value=0.16). There was no consistent evidence of associations between urinary MP or BP and day 3 FSH or AFC, or between urinary MP, PP, or BP and ovarian volume. Propyl-paraben may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve. However, our results require confirmation in further studies.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 08/2013; 121(11-12). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205350 · 7.98 Impact Factor
Show more