Article

Exposure to Bisphenol A and Other Phenols in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Premature Infants

Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 05/2009; 117(4):639-44. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0800265
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that exposure to polyvinyl chloride plastic medical devices containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with higher urinary concentrations of several DEHP metabolites in 54 premature infants in two neonatal intensive care units than in the general population. For 42 of these infants, we evaluated urinary concentrations of several phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), in association with the use of the same medical devices.
We measured the urinary concentrations of free and total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA, triclosan, benzophenone-3, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben.
The percentage of BPA present as its conjugated species was > 90% in more than three-quarters of the premature infants. Intensity of use of products containing DEHP was strongly associated with BPA total concentrations but not with any other phenol. Adjusting for institution and sex, BPA total concentrations among infants in the group of high use of DEHP-containing products were 8.75 times as high as among infants in the low use group (p < 0.0001). Similarly, after adjusting for sex and DEHP-containing product use category, BPA total concentrations among infants in Institution A were 16.6 times as high as those among infants in Institution B (p < 0.0001).
BPA geometric mean urinary concentration (30.3 microg/L) among premature infants undergoing intensive therapeutic medical interventions was one order of magnitude higher than that among the general population. Conjugated species were the primary urinary metabolites of BPA, suggesting that premature infants have some capacity to metabolize BPA. The differences in exposure to BPA by intensity of use of DEHP-containing medical products highlight the need for further studies to determine the specific source(s) of exposure to BPA.

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    • "We observed changes in cardiac conduction beginning at 0.1 μM BPA. This concentration is within the range of previously reported human urinary concentrations (0.024–8.5 μM; Table 1) and is within the upper limit of measured human serum levels (0.001–0.3 μM) in high-risk populations (Calafat et al. 2009; Kaddar et al. 2009; Lee et al. 2008; Padmanabhan et al. 2008; Schönfelder et al. 2002; Vandenberg et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2012). Such concentrations may be present in individuals chronically exposed to high levels of BPA (i.e., industrial workers) and those with reduced metabolic capacities (i.e., fetuses and infants). "
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    • "Methylparaben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP), the two most commonly used parabens (Soni et al. 2005), were detected in > 92% of a representative sample of the U.S. population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), whereas butyl paraben (BP) was detected in 47% of participants (Calafat et al. 2010). Parabens have been detected in urine samples collected from infants (Calafat et al. 2009) and older children (Calafat et al. 2010; Casas et al. 2011; Wolff et al. 2010), in adults of reproductive age and older (Calafat et al. 2010; Meeker et al. 2011), and in pregnant women (Casas et al. 2011; Philippat et al. 2012; Smith et al. 2012), suggesting that exposure to parabens is ubiquitous and may begin in early life and extend throughout the lifespan. Parabens are suspected endocrine disruptors ; they are estrogenic (Golden et al. 2005; Routledge et al. 1998; Soni et al. 2005), although they have a lower estrogen receptor binding affinity than does endogenous estrogen (Routledge et al. 1998; Vo et al. 2010). "
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    • "BPA could leach out from many consumer products under normal usage conditions (Wong et al., 2005; Le et al., 2008; Li et al., 2010b). Due to its widespread usage; BPA has been detected in various environmental media and human samples (Kang et al., 2006; Calafat et al., 2009; He et al., 2009; Jiménez-Díaz et al., 2010; Pirard et al., 2012). "
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