Lipoteichoic Acid Induces Unique Inflammatory Responses when Compared to Other Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligands

Departments of Oncology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(5):e5601. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005601
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize evolutionarily-conserved molecular patterns originating from invading microbes. In this study, we were interested in determining if microbial ligands, which use distinct TLR2-containing receptor complexes, represent unique signals to the cell and can thereby stimulate unique cellular responses. Using the TLR2 ligands, R-FSL1, S-FSL1, Pam2CSK4, Pam3CSK4, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), we demonstrate that these ligands activate NF-kappaB and MAP Kinase pathways with ligand-specific differential kinetics in murine macrophages. Most strikingly, LTA stimulation of these pathways was substantially delayed when compared with the other TLR2 ligands. These kinetics differences were associated with a delay in the LTA-induced expression of a subset of genes as compared with another TLR2 ligand, R-FSL1. However, this did not translate to overall differences in gene expression patterns four hours following stimulation with different TLR2 ligands. We extended this study to evaluate the in vivo responses to distinct TLR2 ligands using a murine model of acute inflammation, which employs intravital microscopy to monitor leukocyte recruitment into the cremaster muscle. We found that, although R-FSL1, S-FSL1, Pam2CSK4, and Pam3CSK4 were all able to stimulate robust leukocyte recruitment in vivo, LTA remained functionally inert in this in vivo model. Therefore distinct TLR2 ligands elicit unique cellular responses, as evidenced by differences in the kinetic profiles of signaling and gene expression responses in vitro, as well as the physiologically relevant differences in the in vivo responses to these ligands.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol, a naturally-occurring phytophenol, has been shown to bolster immune surveillance and reverse immunosenescence in a dose dependent manner in rodents and humans. Although safety and pharmacokinetic studies have been completed in dogs, the immunomodulatory effects of resveratrol in dogs has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of resveratrol on canine innate immune system function in vitro. The hypothesis was that similar to other species, low concentrations of resveratrol would stimulate while high concentrations would depress innate immune system function.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2014; 163(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.12.004 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes inflammation at infection sites by inducing various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). To identify the staphylococcal virulence factors contributing to NO production, we compared the ability of ethanol-killed wild-type S. aureus and mutant strains lacking lipoteichoic acid (ΔltaS), lipoproteins (Δlgt), or d-alanine (ΔdltA) to stimulate NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and the primary macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice. Wild-type, ΔltaS, and ΔdltA strains induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner but this response was not observed when the cells were stimulated with the Δlgt strain. Moreover, purified lipoproteins triggered NO production in macrophages. Coincident with NO induction, the wild-type, ΔltaS, and ΔdltA strains induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) at both mRNA and protein levels whereas Δlgt failed to induce iNOS protein or mRNA. Transient transfection followed by a reporter gene assay and Western blotting experiments demonstrated that wild-type, ΔltaS, and ΔdltA strains, but not the Δlgt strain, induced substantial activation of NF-κB and STAT1 phosphorylation, both of which are known to be crucial for iNOS expression. Moreover, wild-type, ΔltaS, and ΔdltA strains increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is known to mediate S. aureus-induced innate immunity, whereas the Δlgt strain did not. Collectively, these results suggest that lipoproteins in the cell wall of S. aureus play a major role in the induction of NO production in murine macrophages through activation of the TLR2 receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Immunology 01/2015; 65(1):17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.12.016 · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of global mortality due to infectious diseases. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) acts as an important influencing factor favouring bacillary survival during TB infection. In this study, we investigated the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins recognized by sera from TB patient collected before and after anti-TB therapy by dynamic immunoproteomics and identified a novel immune-regulating protein 3-hydroxyacyl-l-thioester dehydratase Y (HtdY), which could induce COX-2 expression in mouse macrophages. Signaling perturbation data showed that the activation of p38, ERK 1/2 and JNK 1/2 MAPK as well as NF-κB played critical role in this immune response. Taken together, our findings indicated that mycobacterial HtdY might contribute to the persistence of the TB infection by inducing COX-2 expression through MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Immunology Letters 06/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2014.05.013 · 2.37 Impact Factor

Preview (3 Sources)

1 Download
Available from