Clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of Chinese patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome: a 9-year retrospective study.
ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP-HUS) is unclear and the prognosis is poor. Few studies have been published focusing on Chinese patients with TTP-HUS. We performed a retrospective study on the clinical characteristics and outcome of Chinese patients with TTP-HUS.
Patients with TTP-HUS, admitted to our hospital from 1998 to 2006, were retrospectively analyzed.
There were 26 females and 6 males in our study. Fifteen patients had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated TTP-HUS; 2 had pregnancy-associated TTP-HUS; 1 had antiphospholipid syndrome-associated TTP-HUS; 2 had drug-associated TTP-HUS; 4 had malignant angionephrosclerosis- associated TTP-HUS; 3 had vasculitis-associated TTP-HUS, and the remaining 5 had idiopathic TTP-HUS. Twenty-six patients had acute kidney injury and 21 had nephrotic syndrome. Hypertension was found in 31 patients. For the treatment, 15 patients had plasmapheresis, 12 had continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration and 14 had hemodialysis. Eighteen patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Corticosteroids were used in patients with idiopathic TTP-HUS. For the patients with SLE-associated TTP-HUS, corticosteroids and immunosuppressant were used. Outcome was poor: 6 patients died; 17 recovered from renal insufficiency; 5 progressed to chronic renal failure, and 4 were dependent on hemodialysis.
Most of our patients had secondary TTP-HUS. SLE-associated TTP-HUS is the most common form of TTP-HUS. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve prognosis. An immunosuppressant together with corticosteroids could improve prognosis in some patients.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis and etiology of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). A new classification system based on pathological immunofluorescence findings has been proposed to replace the traditional clinical classification system in order to better identify the underlying causes of MPGN and to provide guidance for more individualized treatment. We conducted a retrospective survey of the MPGN patients treated in our hospital from 2000 to 2012 and report here the validation of this new classification system in this cohort. A total of 34 patients were diagnosed with MPGN, including 25 males and 9 females. There were 3 cases of secondary MPGN, including 1 case due to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and 2 cases related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Clinical presentations included nephrotic syndrome (76.5%), microscopic hematuria (79.4%), hypocomplementemia (58.8%), renal insufficiency (82.4%), hypertension (100%), and peripheral edema (100%). All patients were treated with prednisone and immunosuppressive agents, mainly cyclophosphamide. During follow-up (median 6 months, range 3-47 months), 4 patients were lost to follow-up and 2 patients progressed to end-stage renal disease. In Western countries the main cause of secondary MPGN was hepatitis C virus or HBV infection, here however we report 2 cases related to HBV infection. MGUS-associated MPGN was less frequent in the Chinese cohort. Future studies should be designed to evaluate the association of the new classification system and clinical outcomes of MPGN.Contributions to nephrology 01/2013; 181:175-184. DOI:10.1159/000348478 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary or secondary glomerulonephritis has been anecdotally reported in association with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). We here report a series of six patients who developed aHUS and glomerulopathy, and review the literature on aHUS and glomerulonephritis. Out of all patients diagnosed at our unit with biopsy-proven glomerular diseases between March 2007 and October 2011, selected cases developing aHUS during the follow-up are presented. The following tests were performed in all six patients: serum C3 and C4 levels, ADAMTS13 activity, CFH levels and anti-CFH autoantibodies and genetic screening for CFH, MCP, CFI, C3 and CFHR1-3 mutations and risk haplotypes associated with aHUS. Two hundred and forty-eight patients received a biopsy-proven diagnosis of glomerulopathy and were followed for a median of 31 months (range 2-58). Of these, six developed aHUS, within a median of 15 months (range 1-36) of their initial diagnosis of glomerulopathy. One of these patients had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type I, one C3 glomerulonephritis and two systemic small vessel vasculitis [one granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), one Henoch-Schoenlein purpura]. Five patients (one of them heterozygous for a CFH mutation) carried, in homo- or heterozygosity, the risk haplotype CFH-H3 (CFH tgtgt), previously described to be associated with aHUS, while another one patient was homozygous for the MCPggaac risk haplotype predisposing to aHUS when present on both alleles. Different types of glomerulopathies can be complicated by aHUS. Several mechanisms can contribute to this association, such as nephrotic-range proteinuria, mutations or aHUS-risk haplotypes involving genes encoding alternative complement regulatory proteins in some patients and inflammatory triggers associated with systemic immune-mediated diseases.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 06/2013; DOI:10.1093/ndt/gft220 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasma exchange has been used for the treatment of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) for more than 40 years. Its main application has been the rapid removal of special pathogenic factors that are of great importance for treatment of antiglomerular basement membrane disease, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, and immune complex-mediated crescentic nephritis. Although the number of controlled trials is increasing, evidence for the benefit of plasma exchange in RPGN has varied in quality and the results are controversial. Moreover, its efficacy appears to depend on the type and duration of crescentic nephritis. Patients with pulmonary hemorrhage need plasma exchange to alleviate their symptoms and improve their chance of survival. Further trials are needed to ascertain the optimal dose, frequency and number of plasma exchange sessions, long-term outcomes, as well as the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of RPGN.Contributions to nephrology 01/2013; 181:240-247. DOI:10.1159/000348632 · 1.53 Impact Factor