Folate is absorbed across the colon of adults: evidence from cecal infusion of (13)C-labeled [6S]-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid.
ABSTRACT Folate deficiency increases the risk of several human diseases. Likewise, high intakes of folate, particularly synthetic folic acid intake, may be associated with adverse health outcomes in humans. A more comprehensive understanding of the "input side" of folate nutrition may help to set dietary recommendations that strike the right balance between health benefits and risks. It is well known that the microflora in the colon produce large quantities of folate that approach or exceed recommended dietary intakes; however, there is no direct evidence of the bioavailability of this pool in humans.
The objective was to determine whether, and to what extent, the natural folate vitamer 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid is absorbed across the intact colon of humans.
During screening colonoscopy, 684 nmol (320 microg) [(13)C]glutamyl-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid was infused directly into the cecum of 6 healthy adults. Three or more weeks later, each subject received an intravenous injection of the same compound (172 nmol). Blood samples were collected before and after each treatment. The ratio of labeled to unlabeled folates was determined in plasma by tandem mass spectrometry.
The apparent rate of folate absorption across the colon of a bolus dose of [(13)C]5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid infused into the cecum was 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/h, as determined by the appearance of [(13)C(5)]5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in plasma. In comparison, the rate of appearance of [(13)C(5)]5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid after an intravenous injection of [(13)C(5)]5-formyltetrahydrofolate was 7 +/- 1.2 nmol/h.
Physiologic doses of natural folate are absorbed across the intact colon in humans.
- SourceAvailable from: Thomas A Andlid[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To screen 19 strains of bifidobacteria for main folate forms composition in synthetic folate-free and complex folate-containing media. HPLC was used to analyse deconjugated folates extracted from bacterial biomass. Most strains had a total folate content above 4000 μg per 100 g dry matter (DM). The highest value of 9295 μg per 100 g DM was found in Bifidobacterium catenulatum ATCC 27539 and the lowest in Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis ATCC 25527 containing 220 μg per 100 g DM. Ten strains grew in a synthetic folate-free medium (FFM), showing folate autotrophy and suggesting folate auxotrophy of the remaining nine. In the autotrophic strains, a consistently higher folate level was found in FFM as compared to a more complex folate-containing medium, suggesting reduced requirements for folates in the presence of growth factors otherwise requiring folates for synthesis. The contents of total folate, 5-CH(3) -H(4) folate and H(4) folate were strain dependent. 5-CH(3) -H(4) folate dominated in most strains. Our results show that bifidobacteria folate content and composition is dynamic, is strain specific and depends on the medium. Suitable selection of the growth conditions can result in high levels of folate per cell unit biomass. This suggests that certain bifidobacteria may contribute to the folate intake, either directly in foods, such as fermented dairy products, or in the intestine as folate-trophic probiotics or part of the natural microbiota.Journal of Applied Microbiology 02/2012; 112(5):975-84. · 2.20 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary factors regulate immunological function, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that vitamin B9 is a survival factor for regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing high levels of vitamin B9 receptor (folate receptor 4). In vitamin B9-reduced condition in vitro, Treg cells could be differentiated from naïve T cells but failed to survive. The impaired survival of Treg cells was associated with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and independent of IL-2. In vivo depletion of dietary vitamin B9 resulted in the reduction of Treg cells in the small intestine, a site for the absorption of dietary vitamin B9. These findings provide a new link between diet and the immune system, which could maintain the immunological homeostasis in the intestine.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32094. · 3.73 Impact Factor
Article: Human folate bioavailability.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate.Nutrients 04/2011; 3(4):475-90. · 2.07 Impact Factor