DPP-IV (EC 184.108.40.206) is a validated drug target for human type II diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors without DPP8/9 inhibitory activity have been sought because a possible association has been reported between a "DPP8/9 inhibitor" and severe toxicity in animals. However, at present, it is not known whether the observed toxicity is associated with DPP8/9 inhibition, or an off-target effect induced by the compound. We investigated whether the inhibition of DPP8/9 is the cause of the severe toxicity in animals using a very potent and selective DPP8/9 inhibitor with different pharmacophore, 1G244. By Ki measurement, 1G244 is 15- and 8-fold more potent against DPP8 and DPP9, respectively, than the "DPP8/9 inhibitor". Strikingly, the "DPP8/9 inhibitor" does not penetrate the plasma membrane but remains outside the cells, whereas 1G244 readily enters the cells, even at low doses. By repeatedly exposing Sprague-Dawley rats to 1G244 by intravenous injection for a period of 14 days, we observed no significant toxicological symptoms associated with 1G244. Blood and serum chemistry parameters were all within the normal ranges for the treated animals. Because of the high potency, good membrane penetration and adequate tissue distribution of 1G244, the mild symptoms observed are probably associated with DPP8/9 inhibition.
"Our genetic targeting approach is the only DPP9-specific model for understanding the biological significance of DPP9 enzymatic activity in vivo. The biology in this model is very different to previous studies that have treated adult animals with inhibitors of both DPP9 and DPP8 or of DPP9, DPP4 and DPP8 together , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP) 4 and related dipeptidyl peptidases are emerging as current and potential therapeutic targets. DPP9 is an intracellular protease that is regulated by redox status and by SUMO1. DPP9 can influence antigen processing, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated signaling and tumor biology. We made the first gene knock-in (gki) mouse with a serine to alanine point mutation at the DPP9 active site (S729A). Weaned heterozygote DPP9 (wt/S729A) pups from 110 intercrosses were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. No homozygote DPP9 (S729A/S729A) weaned mice were detected. DPP9 (S729A/S729A) homozygote embryos, which were morphologically indistinguishable from their wild-type littermate embryos at embryonic day (ED) 12.5 to ED 17.5, were born live but these neonates died within 8 to 24 hours of birth. All neonates suckled and contained milk spots and were of similar body weight. No gender differences were seen. No histological or DPP9 immunostaining pattern differences were seen between genotypes in embryos and neonates. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from DPP9 (S729A/S729A) ED13.5 embryos and neonate DPP9 (S729A/S729A) mouse livers collected within 6 hours after birth had levels of DPP9 protein and DPP9-related proteases that were similar to wild-type but had less DPP9/DPP8-derived activity. These data confirmed the absence of DPP9 enzymatic activity due to the presence of the serine to alanine mutation and no compensation from related proteases. These novel findings suggest that DPP9 enzymatic activity is essential for early neonatal survival in mice.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78378. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078378 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Earlier studies have emphasized the importance of selectivity of DPP-IV inhibitors over other related proteases such as DPP-8, DPP-9, and DPP-II, as their inhibition has been shown to be associated with multiorgan toxicities and mortality in rats. However, chronic DPP8/9 inhibition by vildagliptin (DPP8/9 nonselective inhibitor) as well as 1G244 (DPP8/9 selective inhibitor) did not produce any toxicities in rats suggesting that DPP8/9 inhibition per se does not produce toxicity in rats as reported earlier. RBx-0128 exhibited excellent selectivity against several proteases including DPP-II, DPP-8, DPP-9, PPCE, FAP, NEP 24.11, APP, APN, LAP, prolidase, trypsin, and elastase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition to modulate the incretin effect is a proven strategy to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study describes the pharmacological profile of a novel DPP-IV inhibitor RBx-0128, as an antidiabetic agent.
DPP-IV assay was carried out to evaluate in vitro potency of RBx-0128 using human, mouse, and rat plasma as an enzyme source. Selectivity was assessed with various serine proteases. In vivo efficacy was assessed in ob/ob mice. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile was performed in Wistar rats.
RBx-0128 inhibited human, mouse, and rat plasma DPP-IV activity with IC(50) values of 10.6, 18.1, and 56.0 nM respectively, selective over various serine proteases (900-9000-fold). The inhibition was reversible and competitive in nature. In ob/ob mice, RBx-0128 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited plasma DPP-IV and stimulated GLP-1 and insulin at 10 mg/kg. In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose lowering effect was better than sitagliptin (23 vs. 17%) at 10 mg/kg. The effect was sustained till 8 hours (30-35%) at 10 mg/kg with favorable PK profile (plasma clearance: 39.3 ml/min/kg; C(max) 790 ng/ml; t(1/2) 1.6 hours; t(max) 4.8 hours, V(ss) 3.24 l/kg and F(oral) 55%) in Wistar rats.
The present study showed that RBx-0128 is a novel, DPP-IV inhibitor with an antihyperglycemic effect. It can be a promising candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 11/2012; 44(6):759-64. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.103298 · 0.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) deactivates the natural hypoglycemic incretin hormone GLP-1. Inhibition of this enzyme restores glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients making it an attractive target for the development of new antidiabetic drugs. With this in mind, we suggested an in silico work flow for the identification of novel DPP-IV inhibitors. Ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophores were designed using HipHop program provided in catalyst and ligandScout 3.0 software, respectively. Generated models were validated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, Guner–Henry scoring method and by pharmacophore-based screening of marketed DPP-IV inhibitors. Ligand-based pharmacophore model A scored 0.8 AUC value, 0.865 Guner–Henry score and gave all marketed DPP-IV inhibitors as hits through screening while structure-based pharmacophore B scored 0.77 AUC value, 0.66 Guner–Henry score and gave four marketed DPP-IV inhibitors as hits (except alogliptin) out of five. These validated pharmacophores have effectively been used in search of three databases, Maybridge hitfinder collection, Chemdiv, and Asinex. Resulting hits were subjected to molecular docking using ligandfit program. Five hit compounds namely Asinex ASN 09417841, AW 00785, ChemDiv 0173-0023, ChemDiv 0276-0112, and ChemDiv 8010-1357 scored high Ligscore1 and −PLP1 score comparable to standard drug sitagliptin. Good interactions were found with important residues like Glu205, Glu206, Tyr662, Phe357, Arg358, Tyr666 etc. They were reported as novel virtual leads to design potent DPP-IV inhibitors.
Medicinal Chemistry Research 09/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1007/s00044-012-0455-6 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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